A new fileless malware has been detected that uses DNS to receive commands and send information to the attackers’ command and control server. The stealthy communication method together with the lack of files written to the hard drive makes this new malware threat almost impossible to spot.
The attack method, termed DNSMessenger, starts with a phishing email, as is the case with many of the new malware threats now being detected. The host is infected via a malicious Word document.
Opening the Word document will display a message informing the user that the document has been protected using McAfee Secure. The user is required to enable content to view the document; however, doing so will call a VBA function that defines the Powershell command and includes the malicious code. As is the case with other forms of fileless malware, since no files are written to the hard drive during the infection process, the threat is difficult to detect.
Fileless malware are nothing new, in fact they are becoming increasingly common. What makes this threat unique is the method of communication it uses. The malware is able to receive commands via the DNS – which is usually used to look up Internet Protocol addresses associated with domain names. The malware sends and received information using DNS TXT queries and responses.
DNS TXT records are commonly used as part of the controls organizations have in place to identify phishing emails and verify the sender of a message – Sender Policy Framework (SPF) and Domain Message Authentication Reporting and Conformance (DMARC).
The attackers can send commands to the malware via DNS TXT queries and the malware can send the attackers the output of the commands via the same channel. Even if an organization has blocked outbound DNS for unapproved servers, the malware will still be able to communicate with the attackers C2 infrastructure.
While many organizations inspect the contents of web traffic, relatively few inspect the content of DNS requests. The malware is therefore likely to operate unnoticed. Further, the Cisco Talos team that detected the malware reports that only 6/54 AV engines detected the threat, although ClamAV did identify the file as malicious.
Cybercriminals are constantly looking for new methods of bypassing security controls and infecting end users. However, since this threat is delivered via email, that is the point at which it is easiest to block. Infection also requires macros to be enabled. If macros are blocked, the malware will not be executed. Otherwise, since the DNS communications between the malware and the attackers differs from standard DNS communications, inspecting DNS content should enable security professionals to identify infection.
Opposition to pornography filtering in libraries has seen the American Library Association placed on the National Center for Sexual Exploitation (NCOSE) naughty list.
Each year, NCOSE publishes a list of the top twelve companies and organizations that it believes are either profiting from pornography or facilitating access. The aim of the list, referred to as the Dirty Dozen, is to name and shame the companies and organizations that are failing to do enough to tackle the growing problem of online pornography.
Pornography is only the tip of the iceberg. Hidden underneath is a world of sexual exploitation, prostitution, and sex trafficking. NCOSE sees companies and organizations that fail to take action as being part of the problem, inadvertently – or in some cases deliberately – contributing to the considerable harm that is caused by pornography.
This year’s list includes technology and telecoms companies (Amazon, Comcast, Roku) the American Library Association (ALA) and EBSCO, a provider of library resources to schools, colleges, higher education establishments and libraries). Four websites make the list (YouTube, Twitter, Snapchat, and Backpage.com), along with Cosmopolitan Magazine, HBO, and Amnesty International.
The ALA is almost a permanent fixture on the NCOSE Dirty Dozen list, having been present for the past five years. It is the ALA’s opposition to the use of pornography filtering in libraries that sees it included year after year. NCOSE says “the ALA zealously encourages public libraries not to install internet filters on public access computers.” By taking such a stance, the ALA is providing patrons – including children – with the means to access sexually explicit and obscene material. ALA told CBN news that “Librarians encourage parents and children to talk with one another. Families have a right to set their own boundaries and values. They do not have the right to impose them on others.”
NCOSE doesn’t hold back, saying the ALA stance on pornography filtering in libraries “has turned the once safe community setting of the public library into a XXX space that fosters child sexual abuse, sexual assault, exhibitionism, stalking, and lewd behavior in libraries across the country.”
Only this month, NCOSE responded to the ALA’s continued opposition to pornography filtering in libraries on the grounds of free speech, saying there is no constitutional requirement for libraries to provide access to hardcore pornography to patrons.
EBSCO made the list as its databases “provide easy access to hardcore pornography sites and extremely graphic sexual content,” pointing out that its system allows schoolchildren to easily circumvent web filters in schools. In response to its inclusion on the list, EBSCO says it is working on enhancing its web filtering systems and will implement better algorithms to filter pornographic content.
Amazon made the list, even though it has a policy prohibiting the sale of pornography, because of its pornography-related items on its site, including hardcore pornographic films and sex dolls with childlike features.
Amnesty International made the list for its stance on the decriminalization of prostitution and for creating “a de facto right for men to buy people.” Cosmopolitan was included for its hypersexualized imagery and glamorization of violent, public, and group sex. Roku, Comcast, Snapchat, Twitter, YouTube and HBO were included for peddling pornography, pushing the boundaries of what is acceptable, and making it too easy for pornographic content to be accessed.
A security researcher has discovered a new Google Chrome scam that infects victims’ computers with malware. In contrast to many malware-downloading scams, the new Google Chrome scam is highly convincing and is certain to result in many malware infections.
A popup appears on screen informing the visitor that “the “HoeflerText” font wasn’t found” by Google Chrome. The visitor is told that the webpage they are trying to view cannot be displayed correctly as a result. Visitors are prompted to update their Chrome browser to include the new font by downloading a “Chrome Font Pack.”
The Google Chrome scam is convincing. The popup uses the Chrome logo and looks official, with colors and branding that Google would use on its popup windows. The shading used for the “Update” button on the popup window is also accurately reproduced.
Furthermore, HoeflerText is a true font. If the user opens a new tab on their browser and Google’s the font, they will discover the font is real, making the Google Chrome scam seem entirely plausible.
Clicking the update button will trigger a download of the update file – ChromeFontv7.5.1.exe – which is an executable containing the malware. While attempting to run the executable would normally result in an anti-virus warning being displayed, relatively few anti-virus products are detecting the ChromeFontv7.5.1.exe file as malicious. VirusTotal shows that just 9 out of 59 AV products identify the file as malicious.
The Google Chrome scam was uncovered by NeoSmart Technologies researcher Mahmoud Al-Qudsi. He reports that while the Google Chrome scam is highly convincing, there are two signs that the update is not real. First, regardless of the version of Chrome used, the popup says the user has Chrome version 53. The second sign of the scam is the popup says the update file is called Chrome_Font.exe, yet the file that is downloaded has a different name. These two slipups by the criminals behind the campaign are only slight and would unlikely be noticed by many users.
WebTitan Protects Users from the Latest Google Chrome Scam
The malware is identified as malicious by ClamAV and Kaspersky Lab, the dual anti-virus engines used by WebTitan to protect users from malware infections while browsing the Internet. If WebTitan is installed, this and other malware threats are blocked, preventing end users from inadvertently infecting their computer with malware.
If you have yet to implement a web filtering solution, your computers and networks are likely to be at risk of being infected. Malware and ransomware infections are costly to resolve, cause considerable disruption to business processes, and can result in the theft of intellectual property, customer data, and login credentials. The latter can be used to gain access to corporate bank accounts, allowing funds to be transferred to criminals’ accounts.
Since visiting malicious websites can result in malware being silently downloaded without any user interaction, employees may be unaware that their computers have been infected. Malware infections may go undetected for long periods of time, during which large volumes of sensitive data can be stolen.
A web filtering solution will prevent employees from visiting malicious websites that phish for sensitive information or download malware. Furthermore, a web filtering solution is inexpensive to implement and maintain.
To discover the benefits of web filtering and to find out more about WebTitan, contact the TitanHQ team today. WebTitan is also available on a 30-day, no obligation free trial allowing you to discover the benefits of the full product before deciding to proceed with a purchase.
Email retention laws in the United States require businesses to keep copies of emails for many years. There are federal laws applying to all businesses and organizations, data retention laws for specific industries, and a swathe of email retention laws in the United States at the individual state level. Ensuring compliance with all the appropriate email retention laws in the United States is essential. Non-compliance can prove incredibly costly. Multi-million-dollar fines await any organization found to have breached federal, industry, or state regulations.
All electronic documents must be retained by U.S organizations, which extends to email, in case the information is required by the courts. eDiscovery requests often require large volumes of data to be provided for use in lawsuits and the failure to provide the data can land an organization in serious trouble. Not only are heavy fines issued, organizations can face criminal proceedings if certain data are deleted.
For decades, U.S organizations have been required to store documents. Document retention laws are included in numerous legislative acts such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Executive Order 11246 of 1965, the Freedom of Information Act of 1967, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, and the Reform and Control Act of 1986 to name but a few; however, just over a decade ago, data retention laws in the United States were updated to expand the definition of documents to include electronic communications such as emails and email attachments.
To improve awareness of the many different email retention laws in the United States, a summary has been detailed below. Please bear in mind that this is for information purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice on data retention laws in the United States, we recommend you consult your legal representatives. Industry and federal electronic data and email retention laws in the United States are also subject to change. Up to date information should be obtained from your legal team.
What are the Different Email Retention Laws in the United States?
As you can see from the list below, there are several federal and industry-specific email retention laws in the United States. These laws apply to emails received and sent, and include internal as well as external emails.
Email retention law
Who it applies to
How long emails must be stored
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Federal, state, and local agencies
Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX)
All public companies
Department of Defense (DOD) Regulations
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Regulations
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Regulations
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Regulations
Pharmaceutical firms, food manufacturers, food storage and distribution firms, manufacturers of biological products
Minimum of 5 years rising to 35 years
Banks and Financial Institutions
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Healthcare organizations (Healthcare providers, health insurers, healthcare clearinghouses and business associates of covered entities)
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)
Credit card companies and credit card processing organizations
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Regulations
Email retention laws in the United States that are applied by each of the 50 states are beyond the scope of this article. There area also European laws, such as the GDPR email requirements.
What is the Best Way to Store Old Emails?
Storing emails for a few years is not likely to require masses of storage for a small business with a couple of members of staff. However, the more employees an organization has, the greater the need for extensive resources just to store emails. The average size of a business email may only be 10KB, but multiply that by 123 – the average number of emails sent and received each day by an average business user in 2016 (Radicati email statistics report 2015-2019), and by 365 days in each year, and by the number of years that those emails need to be stored, and the storage requirements become considerable.
If any emails ever need to be accessed, it is essential that any email archive or backup can be searched. In the case of standard backups, that is likely to be an incredibly time consuming process. Backups are not designed to be searched. Finding the right backup alone can be almost impossible, let along finding all emails sent to, or received from, a specific company or individual. Backups have their uses, but are not suitable for businesses for email retention purposes.
For that, an email archive is required. Email archives contain structured email data that can easily be searched. If ever an eDiscovery order is received, finding all email correspondence is a quick and easy task. Since many email archives are cloud based, they also do not require huge storage resources. Emails are stored in the cloud, with the space provided by the service provider.
ArcTitan: TitanHQ’s Cost Effective and Convenient Email Archiving Solution
ArcTitan is a cost-effective, fast and easy-to-manage email archiving solution provided by TitanHQ that meets the needs of all businesses and enables them to comply with all email retention laws in the United States.
ArcTitan incorporates a range of security protections to ensure stored data is kept 100% secure and confidential, with email data encrypted in transit and storage. In contrast to many email archiving solutions, ArcTitan is fast. The solution can process 200 emails per second from your email server and archived emails can be retrieved instantly via a browser or Outlook (using a plugin). Emails can be archived from any location, whether in the office or on the go via a laptop or tablet. There are no limits on storage space or the number of users. The solution can be scaled up to meet the needs of businesses of all sizes.
To find out more about ArcTitan and how it can benefit your business, contact the TitanHQ team today and kiss goodbye to all your email storage headaches.
The hacking of WiFi networks can be highly lucrative for cybercriminals. If WiFi passwords are obtained by hackers, malware can be installed and every user who connects to that network faces a higher risk of having their device and sensitive information stolen.
Strong passwords should be set on Wi-Fi networks to make it harder for cybercriminals to guess the passwords. However, a ISP in the United States recently encouraged its customers to make their Wi-Fi passwords less secure, suggesting they change them to show support for their Super Bowl team.
Charter Spectrum – the second largest ISP in the United States – sent the following tweet to its customers on January 23, 2017 – “Change your WiFi password and show guests where your loyalty lies! #ThatsMyTeam”.
With the Super Bowl fast approaching, the idea was for businesses to show their support for either the New England Patriots or the Atlanta Falcons. By changing their Wi-Fi passwords to GO_ATLANTA or GO_NEWENGLAND they would be telling their customers that they fully supported their local team. It is clear what the intention of the ISP was, although suggesting an easy password for a Wi-Fi network and then tweeting it to customers and followers of the #ThatsMyTeam hashtag was a monumentally bad idea.
It is possible that the ISP was trying to suggest that businesses change the name of their WiFi network temporarily. That would not pose any cybersecurity risk, although that is not what the tweet said. The ISP was widely criticized for the tweet on social media sites and the tweet has since been deleted.
Making a WiFi password less secure makes it easier for hackers to conduct man in the middle attacks. These attacks are where an attacker intercepts and alters communications between two parties – In this case a person who connects to the WiFi network and the website which they wish to communicate – Their bank or an online store for instance. Email conversations can also be hijacked and communications intercepted. Hackers can eavesdrop on conversations and gather information that can be used in future spear phishing campaigns or highly sensitive login credentials to work networks or secure accounts can be gained.
We advise always setting a strong, secure password on Wi-Fi networks and changing that password regularly to prevent cybercriminals from taking advantage. As an additional cybersecurity protection for Wi-Fi network users, a web filter should be used.
By installing WebTitan on your WiFi network, it is possible to control the websites that customers can access. Websites containing exploit kits that silently download malware onto users’ devices can be blocked. A web filter can also be used to prevent users from visiting inappropriate websites that could cause offense to other patrons or harm to minors – pornographic websites for instance. By exercising just a little control over accessible content, a WiiFi network can be made safe and secure for all users.
Following a massive increase in ransomware attacks, security experts have called for ransomware protection for universities to be augmented
Ransomware: A Major Threat to Universities the World Over
Ransomware has become one of the biggest data security threats. The healthcare industry has been extensively targeted, as have the financial services, manufacturing, telecoms, and just about every other industry sector. Now, attacks are being conducted on higher education establishments with increased vigor.
Universities are attractive targets. They store vast quantities of data. Researchers, teaching staff, and students alike need access to data on a daily basis. Without access, all work grinds to a halt. That means ransom demands are likely to be paid.
Secondly, universities use thousands of computers and have tens of thousands of users. Cybersecurity defenses may be good, but with so many individuals with access to Internet facing computers, protecting against targeted attacks on those individuals is a major challenge. Staff and students are being actively targeted as they are the weak links in the security chain.
Then there is the issue of academic freedom. While many industries have implemented web filtering solutions to limit the websites that can be visited by staff and students, many universities have been reluctant to restrict Internet access.
In a similar vein, university networks tend to be more open than in the business world for example. Businesses tend to severely restrict access to networks. If an attack occurs, the damage is very limited. Open networks tend to result in huge numbers of files and devices being encrypted if an attacker breaks through the security perimeter.
Ransomware Protection for Universities Clearly Lacking
The number of university ransomware attacks that have been reported by institutions in the United States and Canada in 2016 has reached alarming levels. Many of those universities have been forced to pay the ransom demands to restore access to files.
Last year, the University of Calgary was forced to pay $16,000 to restore access after a ransomware attack. Carleton University was also attacked with ransomware, as was Los Angeles Valley College. According to a Newsweek report in August last year, two thirds of British universities had been attacked with ransomware. Queen’s University in Belfast, Northern Ireland, was one of those attacked. A ransom had to be paid to recover data. One university in the United Kingdom – Bournemouth University – experienced 21 ransomware attacks in the space of 12 months. The list goes on and on.
Malware is also a problem. The University of Alberta discovered a malware infection on 304 computers. A keylogger had been installed which recorded details of all information entered on infected computers, including login details.
It is unsurprising given the extent to which universities are being attacked that there have been numerous calls for ransomware protection for universities to be improved. But how can ransomware protection for universities actually be improved without causing major disruption to staff and students or overly restricting data access?
How Can Ransomware Protection for Universities be Improved?
Universities, like all organizations, must develop a strategy to prevent ransomware attacks and deal with them when they occur. Protections need to be improved to prevent attacks, technology needs to be employed to detect ransomware infections quickly, and policies and procedures must be developed so rapid action can be taken when attacks occur. Rapid action can greatly reduce the harm caused.
No university wants to overly restrict Internet access, but the use of a web filter is strongly recommended. Rather than blocking access to valuable information, an advanced web filtering solution such as WebTitan can be applied to restrict access to malicious websites and to block malware downloads. WebTitan has highly granular controls which allow restrictions to be put in place to prevent ransomware infections, without overblocking website content. Furthermore, Internet access controls can be easily set for different user groups.
At the very least, universities should apply web filtering controls to prevent the accessing of websites that are known to contain malware and should not rely on their anti-virus solution to provide this service.
It is also essential for controls to be applied to the email system to block emails containing malicious links and attachments. SpamTitan blocks 99.97% of spam emails and 100% of known malware using two anti-virus engines for extra protection. SpamTitan not only blocks incoming spam, but also performs scans of outgoing mail to prevent the spread of infections between end users.
Antivirus and anti-malware solutions should also be used and updated automatically. Intrusion detection systems should also be considered to ensure that infections are rapidly identified.
Good patch management policies are also essential to ensure vulnerabilities are not allowed to persist. Applying patches and software updates promptly reduces the risk of vulnerabilities being exploited.
Even with technologies in place, staff and students should be educated about the risk of cyberattacks, phishing, malware and ransomware. Best practices should be distributed via email to all staff and students along with information about any specific cyberthreats.
Unfortunately, unless ransomware protection for universities is greatly improved, the attacks are likely to continue. Cybercriminals view higher education institutions as soft and potentially highly lucrative targets. It is up to universities to take appropriate action to prevent malware and ransomware attacks.
Poor cybersecurity practices exist at many US organizations, which are allowing hackers and other cybercriminals to gain access to corporate networks, steal data, and install malware and ransomware. Businesses can implement highly sophisticated cybersecurity defenses, but even multi-million-dollar cybersecurity protections can be easily bypassed if poor cybersecurity practices persist.
This month we have seen two reports issued that have highlighted one of the biggest flaws in cybersecurity defenses in US enterprises. Poor password hygiene.
The purpose of passwords is to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data, yet time and again we have seen data breaches occur because of end users’ poor choice of passwords and bad password practices.
Earlier this month, SplashData released its annual report on the worst passwords of 2016. The report details the top 25 poorly chosen passwords. This year’s report showed that little had changed year on year. Americans are still very bad at choosing strong passwords.
Top of this year’s list of the worst passwords of 2016 were two absolute howlers: 123456 and password. Number three and four were no better – 12345 and 12345678. Even number 25 on the list – password1 – would likely only delay a hacker by a few seconds.
Another study also highlighted the extent to which Americans practice poor password hygiene. Pew Research asked 1,040 US adults about their password practices. 39% of respondents said they used the same passwords – or very similar passwords – for multiple online accounts, while 25% admitted to using very simple passwords because they were easier to remember. 56% of 18-29-year-old respondents said that they shared their passwords with other individuals, while 41% of all respondents said they shared passwords with family members.
The results of this survey were supported by later research conducted by Telsign, who found a very blasé attitude to online security among U.S. citizens. Although 80% of respondents admitted to being concerned about online security (and half of those claimed to have had an online account hacked in the past year), 73% of respondents´ online accounts are guarded by duplicate passwords and 54% of respondents use five or fewer passwords across their entire online life.
While the Pew Research and Telsign surveys did not specifically apply to businesses, these poor password practices are regrettably all too common. Passwords used for corporate accounts are recycled and used for personal accounts, and poor password choices for company email accounts and even network access are common. Although two factor authentication is not a solution to the problem of poor personal cybersecurity practices, only 38% of U.S. companies use it to protect their networks from poor corporate cybersecurity practices.
Poor Cybersecurity Practices That Leave Organizations Open to Cyberattacks
Unfortunately, poor cybersecurity practices persist in many organizations. IT departments concentrate on implementing sophisticated multi-layered defenses to protect their networks and data from hackers, yet are guilty of failing to address some of the most basic cybersecurity protections.
The failure to address the following poor cybersecurity practices at your organization will leave the door wide open, and hackers are likely to be quick to take advantage.
More than 4,100 data breaches of more than 500 records were reported by organizations in the United States in 2016*. Many of those data breaches could have been avoided if organizations had eradicated their poor cybersecurity practices.
Some of the main cybersecurity mistakes made by US companies include:
Not conducting a comprehensive, organization-wide risk assessment at least every 12 months
The failure to enforce the use of strong passwords
Not providing employees with a password manager to help them remember complex passwords
The continued use of unsupported operating systems such as Windows XP
Failure to apply patches and updates promptly
Not restricting the use of administrator accounts
Failure to adequately monitor devices for shadow IT
Failure to block macros from running automatically
Giving employees unnecessary access to data systems and networks
Not providing employees with cybersecurity awareness training
Not instructing employees on the safe handling of personally identifiable information
Failure to conduct anti-phishing simulation exercises
Failure to notify new employees and vendors of IT security policies and procedures before data access is provided
Not revising and updating IT security policies and procedures at least every six months
Failure to change default logins on networked devices
Failure to encrypt data on portable storage devices
Allowing employees full, unfettered access to the Internet
Failure to implement a spam filter to block malicious email messages
Failure to monitor applications with access to data
Internet filtering laws in the UK could soon be updated to allow Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to legally block explicit website content.
Former UK Prime Minister David Cameron announced in 2013 that his – and his party’s – aim was to implement greater controls over the Internet and to start blocking pornography by default. In the summer of 2013, pornography filters were put in place by most Internet Service Providers in the UK. Major ISPs in the UK now require customers to opt-in if they wanted to use their computers to view online pornography. However, unless requested, pornography filters are applied.
However, last year, as part of a new EU ruling covering mobile phone roaming charges, the porn filter in the UK was determined to be illegal. The EU ruled that companies are not permitted to block access to legal website content, only website content that is illegal in member states.
The UK opted out of the law after it was passed last year, allowing ISPs to continue to block Internet porn without violating the EU’s ‘Net Neutrality’ laws. However, even though the UK voted out, ISPs were only ever requested to implement porn filters. Internet filtering laws in the UK have never been introduced.
The Digital Economy Bill – which has already been passed by the House of Commons – has had a number of amendments added this week, one of which covers the use of Internet filters. If the Bill is written into law, this will be the first legislation in the UK covering the use of Internet filters.
The new clause is as follows: “A provider of an internet access service to an end-user may prevent or restrict access on the service to information, content, applications or services, for child protection or other purposes, if the action is in accordance with the terms on which the end-user uses the service.”
The UK’s House of Lords will now subject the bill, and the proposed amendments, to close scrutiny next week, examining the Bill line by line. While it is possible that some of the controversial elements of the Bill will be dropped, it is now looking likely that Internet filtering laws in the UK will be introduced.
The Bill also requires ISPs in the UK to block websites containing pornography that do not have any age verification mechanism in place. According to Department of media, culture, and sport parliamentary under-secretary of state Lord Ashton, ISPs will be required to block these websites, with the legislation enforced by the British Board of Film Classification.
While the UK has voted to leave the EU following the ‘Brexit’ vote, until the UK actually leaves the European Union it is required to comply with EU laws. Currently there is some confusion over whether the blocking of pornography by default in the UK contravenes EU laws.
While there is some doubt over the matter, the UK’s communications regulator – OFCOM – has not instructed ISPs to lift the block and require customers to opt in if they want to restrict access to pornography.
A spokesperson for the Department of media, culture, and sport said “We are committed to keeping children safe from harmful pornographic content on the internet and this amendment will give internet service providers reassurance the family friendly filters they currently offer are compliant with EU law.”
There is an important reason why the use of web filters in libraries is increasing. The cost of providing computers with Internet access to patrons is not inconsiderable, yet in order to qualify for discounts under the E-Rate program, libraries must implement a web filter to comply with CIPA regulations. Libraries must use the web filter to block obscene images (pornography), images of child abuse, and any other graphics that could cause minors to come to harm.
However, there is another reason why the use of web filters in libraries is important. This has been clearly demonstrated this week in St. Louis, MO.
Web Filters in Libraries are Not Only About Internet Control
This week, every computer in the St. Louis Public Library System was taken out of action. Visitors were still able to visit the library and use the books, but do little else. All book borrowing stopped since it is not possible to for library staff to log borrowing on the checkout system. Patrons have also been prevented from gaining access to the Internet. Even the email system has been locked and taken out of action.
What kind of computer malfunction causes the entire network of computers to stop working? The answer is ransomware.
Ransomware is malicious software that has been developed with one sole purpose: To encrypt system and data files to prevent access. Once downloaded, ransomware locks files with powerful encryption preventing files from being accessed. The attacker then sends a ransom demand offering the unique keys to decrypt files in exchange for payment.
Typically, attackers demand $500 in an anonymous currency such as Bitcoin to unlock each computer that has been attacked. In the case of the St. Louis Public Library system, the ransom demand was $35,000. All 700 of the library systems’ computers – across 16 locations – were attacked and encrypted.
Some ransomware variants also act as information stealers. Fortunately for the library, its inventory was unaffected and payment card information and other personal information of patrons were not stolen.
The St. Louis Public Library system will not be paying the extortionate ransom demand. It has instead opted for the only alternative in cases of ransomware infections. To wipe its entire system and reinstall files from backups. That is not a quick process. It could take weeks; certainly days.
The ransom payment may be avoided, but removing the infection will still result in considerable costs being incurred. Then there is the impact the attack has had on patrons of the city’s libraries. The library system is primarily used by poor and disadvantaged individuals. According to library spokesperson Jen Hatton, “For many of our patrons, we’re their only access to the internet.” Hatton also said, “This is their only access to a computer. Some of them have a smartphone, but they don’t have a data plan. They come in and use the Wi-Fi.”
It is not clear how the infection occurred, although there are two main ways that ransomware is installed: Malicious spam email messages and by visiting malicious websites. Both of these attack vectors can be blocked if appropriate software is installed.
Web Filters in Libraries are an Important Ransomware Defense
A spam filter can be used to filter out malicious messages. Those messages contain attachments, which if opened, infect computers or download ransomware. User interaction is required. If the messages are quarantined and not delivered to users’ inboxes, infection can be prevented.
The use of web filters in libraries is therefore not just about limiting access to inappropriate and harmful website content. Web filters in libraries are an important cybersecurity protection that can help to ensure that, come what may, patrons will still be able to access the Internet and borrow books.
If you use a computer, you are at risk of having your device infected with malware; however, listed below are some useful tips for preventing malware infections.
Unfortunately, signature-based anti-malware software is far less effective at preventing infections than in years gone by. Malware developers are now using a wide range of strategies and techniques to prevent traditional anti-malware solutions from detecting and blocking infections.
Rely on anti-malware or anti-virus software alone and sooner or later you may find your device has been compromised, your keystrokes are being logged, and your – or your organization’s – data are being stolen.
However, there are some straightforward strategies that you can adopt to prevent malware infections and keep your computer, and your network, malware-free.
10 Tips for Preventing Malware Infections
Backup Your data
OK, a data backup will not prevent a malware infection, but it can help you recover if your computer is infected with ransomware or if your data are corrupted as a result of an infection – or removal of malware. The only way to recover from some infections is to wipe out your system and restore it from a previously known safe point. You must therefore have a safe point that you can use. Nightly backups should be performed. You only then stand to lose 24 hours of data at most.
Keep your malware definitions up to date
Anti-malware software may not be as effective as it once was, but you do need to give it a fighting chance. If you do not keep your definitions 100% up to date you are asking for trouble. This may sound obvious, but many organizations delay updating malware definitions for forget to set software to update automatically on all devices.
Never click on links or open email attachments from unknown senders
Cybercriminals target employees as it is far easier to gain access to a corporate network if an employee bypasses their organization’s defences and installs malware. All it takes is for one employee to install malware for attackers to gain a foothold in a network. Ensure that all employees receive anti-phishing training and have at least basic IT security skills. Most data breaches start with a phishing email.
Ensure operating systems and software are patched promptly
Operating systems, firmware, and all software must be kept up to date. As soon as patches are released, cybercriminals will be reverse engineering them to uncover the vulnerabilities. Don’t delay applying patches. Good patch management policies are essential for preventing malware infections.
Watch out for shadow IT
Downloading pirated software is an excellent way to infect computers with malware. Pirated software is often bundled with malware, spyware, and all manner of nasties. Block the running of executables and keygens if practical. Only install software from trusted sources. As an additional check, before installing software, check the software provider’s MD5 hash against your copy. If it’s a match, install. If not, delete.
Take care with USB drives
Not all malware comes via the web or email. USB drives can easily introduce malware. Make sure your anti-malware solution is configured to automatically scan USB drives before granting system access and never plug in a drive from an unknown source.
Perform regular malware scans
Having anti-virus and anti-malware software will not necessarily mean your system is protected. Full system scans should still be performed. Some infections can slip under the radar. A full scan should be performed at least once a month.
Keep abreast of the latest malware trends
You may have limited time, but it is important to keep abreast of the latest attack trends, cyberattacks, data breaches, and threat reports. Check the warnings from US-CERT, and monitor websites such as DarkReading, CIO, CISO, and The Register. A little research goes a very long way.
Keep mobile devices protected
Mobiles can easily be used to introduce malware onto networks to which they connect. Mobiles are often used on unprotected Wi-Fi hotspots, and the devices are increasingly being targeted by hackers. Ensure security software is installed on mobile devices and security settings on phones are active.
Use a firewall, web, and Wi-Fi filtering
A firewall is essential tool for preventing malware infections, although businesses should consider purchasing a next generation firewall device. Next generation firewalls combine a traditional firewall with other network device filtering functionalities. Web and Wi-Fi filtering solutions are also important. By filtering the Internet, it is possible to prevent drive-by malware downloads and carefully control the risks that employees take.
There is now a new and particularly dangerous ransomware threat to deal with. Spora ransomware could well be the new Locky.
Locky and Samas ransomware have proved to be major headaches for IT departments. Both forms of ransomware have a host of innovative features designed to avoid detection, increase infections, and inflict maximum damage, leaving businesses with little alternative but pay the ransom demand.
However, there is now a new ransomware threat to deal with, and it could well be even bigger than Locky and Samas. Fortunately, the ransomware authors only appear to be targeting Russian users, but that is likely to change. While a Russian version has been used in attacks so far, an English language version has now been developed. Spora ransomware attacks will soon be a global problem.
A considerable amount of time and effort has gone into producing this particularly dangerous new ransomware variant and a decryptor is unlikely to be developed due to the way that the ransomware encrypts data.
In contrast to many new ransomware threats that rely on a Command and Control server to receive instructions, Spora ransomware is capable of encrypting files even if the user is offline. Shutting down Internet access will not prevent an infection. It is also not possible to block access to the C&C server to stop infection.
Ransomware variants have previously been developed that can encrypt without C&C communication, although unique decryption keys are not required. That means one key will unlock all infections. Spora ransomware on the other hand requires all victims to use a unique key to unlock the encryption. A hard-coded RSA public key is used to generate a unique AES key for every user. That process occurs locally. The AES key is then used to encrypt the private key from a public/private RSA key pair generated for each victim, without C&C communications. The RSA key also encrypts the unique AES keys for each user. Without the key supplied by the attackers, it will not be possible to unlock the encryption.
This complex encryption process is only part of what makes Spora ransomware unique. In contrast to many other ransomware variants, the attackers have not set the ransom amount. This gives the attackers a degree of flexibility and importantly this process occurs automatically. Security researchers believe the degree of automation will see the ransomware offered on an affiliate model.
The flexibility allows businesses to be charged a different amount to an individual. The ransom set based on the extent of the infection and types of files that have been encrypted. Since Spora ransomware collects data on the user, when contact is made to pay the ransom, amounts could easily be adjusted.
When victims visit the attacker’s payment portal to pay the ransom, they must supply the key file that is created by the ransomware. The key files contains a range of data on the user, including details of the campaign used. The attackers can therefore carefully monitor infections and campaigns. Those campaigns that are effective and result in more payments can then be repeated. Less effective campaigns can be dropped.
Currently there are multiple payment options, including something quite different. Victims can pay to unlock the encryption, or pay extra to prevent future attacks, essentially being granted immunity.
Emisoft researchers who have analyzed Spora ransomware say it is far from a run of the mill variant that has been quickly thrown together. It is the work of a highly professional gang. The encryption process contains no flaws – uncommon for a new ransomware variant – the design of the HTML ransom demand and the payment portal is highly professional, and the payment portal also contains a chat option to allow communication with the attackers. This degree of professionalism only comes from extensive investment and considerable work. This threat is unlikely to go away soon. In fact, it could prove to be one of the biggest threats in 2017 and beyond.
Cybercriminals have embraced ransomware and have been increasingly targeting businesses, yet many business leaders are unsure how to prevent ransomware attacks. Consequently, the risk from ransomware is not being effectively managed, and that may prove costly.
Ransomware is a form of malware that is capable of encrypting files on local machines, network drives, and servers. Any computer that is connected to the Internet can potentially be infected. Even without internet access, files may be encrypted if a computer is networked. The latest ransomware variants are capable of spreading laterally within a network and encrypting the data on hundreds of devices.
Files required for critical business processes may be encrypted and made inaccessible. A successful attack can result in a company’s operations grinding to a halt. A healthcare ransomware attack can result in patients’ health information becoming inaccessible. An attack on a pharmaceutical company may result in files necessary for drug manufacture being locked, which could affect the quality of products. Lawyers offices may lose essential client information. Few businesses could continue to operate at their full potential during a ransomware attack.
The loss of files can prove extremely expensive, far less than the cost of any ransom payment. Many companies therefore are left with little alternative but to pay the ransom demand. Ransom payments are actually made surprisingly frequently. According to a recent study conducted by IBM, 70% of businesses that experienced a ransomware infection ended up paying the attackers to supply the keys to unlock their data. Half of those businesses paid more than $20,000 while 20% paid more than $40,000.
Even when the ransom is paid there is no guarantee that a viable key will be supplied to unlock the encryption. Files may therefore be lost forever. One healthcare organization in the United States recently discovered that files can all too easily be lost forever. Three months after ransomware was installed on one of its servers and critical patient health information was encrypted, Desert Care Family and Sports Medicine has still not been able to unlock the encryption nor access its patients’ data.
It is essential to learn how to prevent ransomware attacks and to implement appropriate defenses not only to stop attackers from installing ransomware, but to ensure a system is put in place that will allow data to be recovered without having to resort to paying a ransom.
Recovering from a ransomware attack can be extremely expensive. Ransom payments can be extortionate. Business can be lost while systems are taken out of action. Even applying keys that have been supplied by attackers can be long winded. Each encrypted device has its own key, and those keys must be applied very carefully. A forensic analysis is also important after a ransomware attack to search for backdoors that may have added, as well as to determine if data have been stolen. Additional protections then need to be put in place to prevent future attacks from occurring.
How to Prevent Ransomware Attacks
The first and most important step to take will not prevent ransomware attacks, but it will help you to recover from a ransomware attack promptly without having to resort to paying the ransom. Recovery will depend on you having a viable backup of your data. Total file recovery may not be possible, but it should be possible to recover the vast majority of your files.
For that to be possible, you must ensure that all files on all devices and network drives are backed up. That includes all removable drives such as flash drives. Backup files must be stored on a non-networked drive, in the cloud, or ideally on an air-gapped device – One that is unplugged as soon as the backup is performed. Multiple backups should ideally be made with one copy stored in the cloud and one on a detachable storage device. You should always store backups in multiple files. If one becomes corrupted, you will not lose all of your data.
Avoid the use of administrator accounts with extensive privileges as far as is possible. If an administrator account is required, use it and then change to a guest account with limited privileges. This will reduce the damage caused if the user’s machine is infected.
Ensure that all software is kept up to date and your organization employs good patch management practices. In particular, ensure browser and plugin updates are applied promptly. Vulnerabilities can all too easily be exploited and used to download ransomware.
If plugins are not required, remove them. Adobe Flash in particular, but also Java and Silverlight. If required, they should require activating individually as and when needed.
Ensure employees’ computers are configured to show file extensions. If full file extensions are displayed, it is easier to identify potentially malicious files with double extensions.
Ensure macros are disabled on all devices. At the very least, ensure macros do not run automatically.
Disable Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) on all devices unless it is absolutely essential.
A web filter can be used to prevent end users from visiting malicious websites where ransomware can be downloaded. A web filter can also block malicious third party adverts (malversting).
End users should be instructed never to open files from unknown senders or to click on links contained in emails unless 100% sure that the links are genuine.
The use of a spam filter is strongly advisable. The spam filter should be configured to aggressively block threats. Executable file attachments should also be automatically quarantined.
In the past few days, Facebook Messenger Locky ransomware attacks have been discovered, exploit activity has increased, and malicious spam email volume has increased. Organizations now need to defense against a wide range of attack vectors
2016 – The Year of Ransomware
2016 has seen an explosion in the use of ransomware by cybercriminals and there is no sign of that changing in the near future. More than 200 ransomware families have now been identified, one of the most dangerous being Locky.
Locky ransomware was first discovered in February this year, but it has fast become one of the most prolific ransomware variants and has infected thousands of computers. No organization is immune to attack, although the gang behind the infections have been extensively targeting healthcare organizations. A number of U.S. healthcare providers have been forced to pay a ransom demand to recover their data.
Rather than cybercriminals having to break through company defenses to gain access to data, then exfiltrate files, and sell those data on the black market – a process that can take weeks before payment is received – ransomware is a quick and easy revenue generator. Payments are made within a few days of infection as many companies cannot continue to function without access to their data.
It is not even necessary for cybercriminals to develop their own ransomware. The malicious file-encrypting software can be ‘hired’ from the authors. By using ransomware-as-a-service, anyone with an Internet connection could run a ransomware campaign. Little skill is needed and attacks result in fast payment. It is therefore no surprise that the file-encrypting software has become so popular.
Infection can occur via malicious adverts, exploit kits, or via spam email. All of those infection vectors allow the attackers to bypass traditional cybersecurity defenses such as firewalls.
Some headway has been made by security researchers and decryptors have been developed for some ransomware variants. Wildfire, Chimera, Shade, TeslaCrypt, and CoinVault have all been cracked. However, Locky has so far resisted security researchers’ efforts to crack it.
The authors of the crypto-ransomware are also constantly updating Locky and new variants are regularly being released. At present, there is no decryptor available for Locky infections and victims are faced with three choices if they experience an infection:
Accept data loss
Pay the ransom demand to obtain a key to unlock data
Recover encrypted files from backups
Unfortunately for the victims, recovering encrypted files from backups can be complicated. Locky not only locks files with powerful encryption, the files names and file extensions are also changed. This makes it hard for victims to identify specific files. Locky also deletes Windows Shadow Copies to make it harder for victims to recover their data.
The authors behind Locky have experimented with exploit kits to spread infections, although since the demise of the Angler and Neutrino exploit kits, Locky has primarily been distributed via spam email. Massive spam email campaigns are used to spread the malicious software. Those campaigns involve many millions of emails.
However, earlier this month, security researchers noticed that the cybercriminal gang behind Locky has started to use exploit kits again. The Bizarro Sundown exploit kit has been discovered to be spreading Locky. More worrying, Facebook Messenger Locky ransomware attacks have now been reported.
The social media giant has confirmed that Facebook Messenger Locky ransomware attacks have occurred, although Facebook was quick to point out that infections are occurring via “a poorly implemented extension for Google’s Chrome browser.”
Security controls are generally very good at Facebook, but they are not infallible. Facebook Messenger Locky ransomware attacks are a major risk and users must exercise caution.
As with spam email, users should not open any attachments from individuals they do not know. Even when image files and other file types are received via messenger apps and spam email from individuals that are known to the recipient, they should be treated with suspicion.
How to Reduce the Risk of a Ransomware Infection
Businesses need to implement defenses to reduce the risk of a ransomware infection. The consequences for taking no action can be severe.
Ransomware infections can spread laterally through a network and ransomware gangs require payment for each infected machine and can even set the price per infected organization. The Locky ransomware attack on Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center in February resulted in a ransom payment of $17,000 being made, in addition to the considerable cost associated with removing the infection and recovering from more than a week without access to key information systems.
One of the best defenses against ransomware is WebTitan. WebTitan is an innovative web filtering solution that can be configured to limit access to websites known to host exploit kits. Malicious third-party adverts (malvertising) can be blocked, along with websites that carry a high risk of being exploited by hackers to spread infections.
The best way for businesses to ensure that Facebook Messenger Locky ransomware attacks do not occur is to block Facebook Messenger entirely. With WebTitan, blocking Facebook Messenger – without blocking the Facebook website- is a quick and easy task.
By limiting the websites that can be visited by employees and blocking Facebook Messenger and other chat platforms, organizations can greatly improve their security posture and prevent ransomware from being installed.
For further information on the full range of features of WebTitan, details of pricing, and how to register for a free no-obligation trial, contact the TitanHQ sales team today.
Hardware-based web filtering appliances for schools have some advantages, but many K12 schools are saying goodbye to the appliances and are choosing a much more convenient and practical solution.
In the United States, K12 schools are required to implement a web filtering solution to control access to the Internet in order to receive E-rate funding. Even schools that do not participate in the E-rate program need to filter the Internet. Parents are pressuring schools into ensuring the Internet can be accessed safely in schools and want to receive assurances that their children can use the Internet without inadvertently – or deliberately – viewing inappropriate material such as pornography.
Hardware-Based Web Filtering Appliances for Schools
A hardware-based web filtering appliance for schools may appear to tick all the boxes. Hardware devices sit in front of an Internet gateway and filter Internet traffic. They prevent users from accessing websites that are deemed to be dangerous or inappropriate.
While hardware-based web filtering appliances for schools can seem like an easy option, many schools are finding that is far from the case. Hardware-based web filtering appliances for schools are fine if there are just a handful of computers accessing the Internet in each classroom, but hardware solutions lack scalability. When the number of devices is increased, more appliances must be purchased.
Hardware-based web filtering appliances place limitations on web traffic. When the number of devices simultaneously requiring access to the Interest increases, a bottleneck can occur. It doesn’t matter how much the Internet pipe to a school is increased with an ISP, if a 1GB web filtering appliance is used for example, that will be the limiting factor not a 5GB connection. There is likely to be latency, which can be considerable.
One solution is to use multiple hardware devices. This will increase the capacity, although more devices mean an increased maintenance burden on IT departments. Multiple devices mean schools have to find the space to house the appliances. Cooling systems may need to be augmented and more devices means higher energy bills. Hardware-based web filtering appliances for schools can prove to be very costly.
Hardware-based web filtering appliances are now being stretched further still as many schools start increasing the number of devices used by students. While one or two desktop computers used to be sufficient, many schools are now considering one-to-one computing, where each student is issued with a school laptop. However, such an increase in devices places considerable demands on hardware-based web filters and the result is considerable latency.
Then there is the problem of how to protect students when laptop computers are taken home. As we have already seen, some parents have made their schools take back the devices until adequate controls are placed on the devices to restrict Internet content. If software is installed on each laptop – in the form of a local client – the Internet can still be filtered using school hardware-based web filters. The client forwards traffic to the school’s datacenter, and traffic then passes through a web filtering appliance.
This sorts out the problem of Internet filtering, but it also puts more pressure on the datacenter. This may even require additional hardware devices to be purchased. Also, outside of normal school hours, if there are any issues with the datacenter, students will be prevented from accessing the Internet.
The latency and cost issues have spurred many K12 schools to look for an alternative to hardware-based web filtering appliances for schools. The answer has been found in the cloud.
Benefits of Cloud-Based Web Filtering Solutions for Schools
Cloud-based web filtering solutions offer a number of advantages over hardware-based web filtering appliances and solve many problems, especially as schools increase either the number of devices supplied to students or the number of devices that are allowed to connect to the network.
Cloud-based solutions require no hardware purchases and no space in the data center. This offers an initial cost saving as devices do not need to be purchased. No network deployments of client applications also means quick and easy implementation and since there is no hardware to maintain, the burden on IT departments is eased.
Any web filtering solution involves a certain degree of latency, although with cloud-based solutions this is kept to an absolute minimal level. Internet speed is not noticeably reduced and there is no latency within the datacenter itself. When students take hardware off the premises they can still be protected without data needing to be routed back to the schools’ datacenter.
Then there is the speed of reaction to web content that should be blocked. When changes need to be made to filtering rules they can be applied quickly and easily from any location without the need for IT staff to access each hardware appliance. A cloud-based control panel can be accessed from anywhere with an Internet connection and changes can be rapidly made.
Cloud-based solutions are also highly scalable. There is no limit on bandwidth or the number of users. Once a solution is deployed, it doesn’t matter how big the network gets. There is no need to upgrade hardware or purchase any more devices.
With these and many other benefits it is no surprise that so many schools are now turning to the cloud for their Internet filtering needs. The cloud is the perfect choice for K12 schools looking to keep their students – and devices – safe.
There are a number of reasons why ransomware attacks have been increasing and why the crypto-ransomware has now become one of the biggest and most worrying threats. However, the main reason is ransomware is extremely profitable.
How profitable? According to a recent security report from McAfee Labs, one single ransomware author managed to pull in an incredible $121 million in ransomware payments in the first six months of 2016. Take off the expenses incurred and the author cleared $94 million in profit.
That was just one author. There are many. There are now more than 200 different ransomware families and many more variants of each. Fortunately, developing new ransomware is a complicated business that requires considerable programming skill. Unfortunately, there are many individuals who rent ransomware to conduct campaigns and take a cut of the profits.
The explosion in use of ransomware in the past two years is a cause for concern for all Internet users, especially for business owners. Unfortunately, the ransomware crisis is unlikely to be resolved any time soon. As long as it is profitable, the attacks will continue. Vincent Weafer, VP of Intel Security’s McAfee Labs, expects the revenues from ransomware infections in 2016 will be of the order of several hundreds of millions of dollars and most likely considerably more.
McAfee recorded 1.3 million new ransomware samples in the first half of 2016. The risk of infection with ransomware has increased as authors employ increasingly sophisticated methods of evading detection. Ransomware is also spreading faster and encrypting even more data to ensure victims have no alternative but to pay up.
But how is it possible to prevent ransomware attacks? Unfortunately, there is no silver bullet. Prevention requires several different strategies to be adopted. To prevent ransomware attacks, check out the ransomware protection tips below.
Ransomware Protection Tips
We have listed some ransomware protection tips below that will help you to avoid ransomware infections – And how to avoid paying a ransom should the unthinkable happen.
The first rule of ransomware avoidance is backing up your data
The no More Ransom Project is a great initiative. When ransomware variants are cracked and decryptors developed, they are being uploaded onto the No More Ransom site. Victims can then decrypt their files for free. However, there are more than 200 ransomware families and less than 10 free decryptors. You don’t need to have majored in mathematics to work out that the probability of a decryptor being available is rather small. If you want to be able to avoid paying a ransom you must have a viable backup of your data.
The second rule of ransomware avoidance is backing up your data
Without a backup, you will need to pay the ransom if you want your data back. You therefore need to make sure you have a viable backup file. However, multiple backups should be performed. You should have a backup on an external hard drive and a second backup in the cloud. Your external drive must also be disconnected once the backup has been performed.
Keep software up to date
Vulnerabilities are constantly being discovered and patches issued to plug security holes. Even if exploits have not been developed to take advantage of those vulnerabilities, patches can be reverse engineered. Once patches are released, it will only be a matter of time before exploits are developed. It is therefore essential to apply patches and install software updates promptly. Patches should be prioritized with critical updates applied first.
Remove unnecessary software and browser plugins
If you have browser plugins installed that you never use, remove them. They are an unnecessary risk. Of particular concern are Adobe Flash, Java, and Silverlight. Vulnerabilities are regularly discovered in these plugins and for many businesses they are surplus to requirements. Remove them or at least set them to require manual activation.
Malvertising may not be the most common method of ransomware delivery but the risk should be mitigated nonetheless. Businesses should use an adblocker to prevent malicious adverts from being displayed. Do your employees need to see web adverts? If not, why take the risk?
Filter the Internet
Malicious websites containing exploit kits can probe for a wide range of security vulnerabilities and leverage these to silently download ransomware. WebTitan can be configured to block websites known to contain malware and block sites by category. Categories of websites known to be ‘high risk’ can be blocked, as well as sites that have no work-purpose. Blocking access to certain categories of websites can greatly reduce the risk from web-borne ransomware and malware infections.
Conduct security awareness training
Security awareness training is not just for employees. All individuals in an organization should be taught the security basics from the CEO down. Training should include phishing awareness and avoidance, ransomware and malware, and good security best practices such as never opening emails from unknown sources, not enabling macros, and avoiding clicking links in spam and suspicious emails.
Turn off macros
Macros are used in many organizations, but not by the majority of employees. Macros should be disabled on all devices unless essential, and even then, macros should be enabled manually on documents and spreadsheets if required.
Employ a robust spam filtering solution
A paid-for spam filtering solution should be installed to catch spam emails and prevent delivery. Email is one of the most commonly used ransomware delivery mechanisms. Anti-spam solutions such as SpamTitan can greatly reduce the probability of employees’ security training being put to the test.
Use anti-malware and anti-virus solutions
Employ anti-malware and anti-virus solutions that include a real-time scanning feature and set the solutions to update virus/malware definitions automatically. Full system scans should also be periodically conducted.
The threat from malware is now greater than ever before in the history of the Internet. New malware is being developed at alarming rates, and traditional antivirus software developers are struggling to maintain pace and prevent new forms of malware from being installed on endpoints.
Not only are malware developers creating ever stealthier information stealers, Trojans, and ransomware, the methods used to install the malicious software are becoming much more sophisticated. Keeping endpoints and networks free from infection is becoming far more complicated, while the cost of dealing with malware infections is increasing. Figures from the Ponemon Institute suggest the average cost of a data breach has now reached $4 million.
2015 saw some of the largest data breaches ever discovered and the situation is getting worse. The 78.8-million record attack on Anthem Inc. may have been one of the worst ever data breaches in terms of the number of individuals affected and the amount of data obtained by the attackers, but 2016 has seen even larger data breaches uncovered.
The attack on LinkedIn, which was discovered in May this year, affected 117 million users. The data breach at MySpace resulted in 460 million passwords being obtained by hackers, 111 million of those records also included a username. However, even those massive data breaches were dwarfed by the discovery of the data breach at Yahoo Inc., this month. Hackers were found to have obtained the information of around 500 million individuals.
Not all of those data breaches involved the use of malware, but a large percentage of smaller breaches have occurred as a result of malware infections and the threat from ransomware has grown significantly over the past few months.
Threat from Malware Greater than Ever Before
This month, a study conducted by Proofpoint has cast more light on the seriousness of the threat from malware and the extent to which organizations are being attacked and the seriousness of the threat from malware. The Proofpoint 2016 Security Report shows that throughout 2015, an average of 274 new forms of previously unknown malware were discovered every minute. 971 forms of unknown malware hit organizations every hour in 2015. That’s 9 times the downloads that occurred in 2014. Proofpoint’s research indicates 12 million new pieces of malware were discovered every month last year.
Proofpoint’s study revealed that in 2015, 89% of organizations downloaded a malicious file. In 2014, only 63% of companies reported downloading malicious files. In 2014, malware was downloaded every 6 minutes on average. In 2015, new malware was being downloaded every 81 seconds. In total, almost 144 million new malware were found in 2015. Out of the 6,000 gateways analyzed by Proofpoint, 52.7% were found to have downloaded at least one file infected with malware, and an average of 2,372 infected files were reported per gateway.
Email remains one of the most common vectors for malware delivery. Attackers are sending malicious emails containing scripts that download malware, or links to websites containing exploit kits that download information stealers, Trojans, and ransomware.
There was a small decline in the number of malicious websites that were accessed by employees. In 2014, 86% of organizations reported that end users had visited malicious websites. In 2015, 82% of organizations said employees had visited malicious websites.
However, employees in enterprise organizations were five times more likely to visit malicious websites in 2015 than in 2014. On average, enterprise employees visited malicious websites every 5 seconds. In 2014, malicious websites were accessed every 24 seconds.
Protecting Against Malware Attacks
Defending against malware attacks requires more than an anti-virus or anti-malware solution. Multi-layered cybersecurity defenses are required to cope with the onslaught.
Training programs should be conducted regularly to ensure employees are aware of the risks and latest threats. Knowledge should also be put to the test by conducting phishing training exercises.
Technical solutions should include anti-virus, anti-malware, and anti-bot software. Virus and malware definitions must be kept up to date and regular network scans conducted to identify infections rapidly.
Since email is the most common attack vector, anti-spam solutions should be employed. By using a robust anti-spam solution such as SpamTitan it is possible to prevent the vast majority of malicious emails from being delivered to end users. SpamTitan blocks 99.7% of spam email.
A URL filtering solution such as WebTitan should also be employed to prevent end users from visiting malicious websites and downloading malware. WebTitan can be configured to prevent end users from visiting websites known to contain malware and exploit kits. Malicious third party adverts – malvertising – can also be blocked, as can categories of websites which carry a high risk of containing malware.
Along with advanced threat prevention technologies, application controls, intrusion prevention systems, and good patch management policies it is possible to prevent the vast majority of malware attacks. However, with the volume of malware now being released and the extent to which hackers are attacking organizations, failing to commit improve cybersecurity defenses is likely to see organizations become another breach statistic.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Rhode Island has praised the General Assembly for introducing more transparent standards for the use of Internet filters in schools in the state.
Since the passing of the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA), K-12 schools and libraries that apply for E-Rate discounts have been required to implement a web filter to restrict access to inappropriate or harmful website content. The web filter must be configured to block obscene images, child pornography, and other content that could be considered harmful to minors.
Overzealous Use of School Internet Filters in Rhode Island
While schools in Rhode Island have complied with CIPA, many have gone further and have used Internet content filtering software to block far more website content than CIPA requires. Blocking potentially harmful website content protects children from harm; however, schools must take care not to overblock website content.
There is a clear difference between pornographic content which contains images of naked individuals and artwork which depicts nudes for example. The former has potential to cause harm to minors, the latter has educational value and should not be blocked. If there are no standards for the use of Internet filters in schools, it is all too easy for valuable educational material to be inadvertently blocked.
Three years ago UCLA published a report on how overblocking of website content can harm public education. The report details some of the difficulties staff and students have had accessing valuable website content after web filtering solutions have been implemented in educational establishments in Rhode Island.
Internet filters allow website content to be blocked based on categories. Schools may, for instance, choose to block content relating to alcohol. However, the report says some students had tried searching for polyvinyl alcohol – information on which was required for their studies, yet the content was not accessible because the Internet filtering category “alcohol” had been blocked.
Students who want to access LGBT information or individuals wishing to find out about sexually transmitted diseases should be able to access that information, yet this type of website content can all too easily be blocked if Internet filters are not carefully applied. The ACLU believes that transparent standards for the use of Internet filters in schools are necessary. Schools should be open about the type of content that they block and the reasons for doing so. With greater transparency students can be protected from harm, yet have access to valuable educational material.
New Standards for the Use of Internet Filters in Schools in Rhode Island
Rep. Art Handy and Sen. Adam Satchell sponsored the new bills (H-7583-A and S-2172-A) which require written policies to be implemented which explain the categories of website content which are blocked by the state Department of Education and school districts. The new legislation also requires reasons to be provided for blocking specific categories of website content. Policies must also be reviewed on an annual basis.
Hillary Davis, policy associate of ACLA of Rhode Island, praised the introduction of new standards for the use of Internet filters in schools by the General Assembly. She said, “The Internet offers a world of educational opportunities that Rhode Island’s students have been denied because of overzealous filtering software.” Davis went on to say, “This new law will go a long way toward ensuring teachers can bring their full range of resources to the classroom, and that students can complete their studies without interruption or frustration.”
McDonalds and Starbucks have recently announced that they have taken steps to block porn on WiFi networks that can be accessed by their customers. McDonalds restaurants in the United States already have a web filtering solution in place that prevents customers from accessing pornographic material via their in-restaurant WiFi networks. Mature content – such as online streaming of TV shows such as Game of Thrones – will still be possible. Starbucks has also recently followed the lead of McDonalds and will soon implement a web filtering solution to block pornography.
McDonalds is the largest fast-food chain in the United States, operating more than 14,000 restaurants. Starbucks is the largest coffee shop chain in the United States, with more than 12,200 outlets in the U.S. Due to the size of the chains, and their popularity with children and families, both organizations have faced pressure from Internet safety organizations to start implementing controls to limit the website content that can be accessed via their WiFi networks.
McDonalds Chooses to Block Porn on WiFi Networks in its Restaurants
McDonalds started to block porn on WiFi networks available to customers earlier this year. According to a statement issued by the fast-food chain, the corporation was previously unaware that there was a problem with customers accessing pornography inside its restaurants or that consumers wanted restrictions to be placed on its WiFi networks.
After the not-for-profit Internet safety organization Enough is Enough reached out to the CEO of McDonalds last year and suggested WiFi network porn filtering should be implemented, the fast-food chain reacted “promptly and positively.”
McDonalds recently issued a statement saying “We had not heard from our customers that this was an issue, but we saw an opportunity that is consistent with our goal of providing an enjoyable experience for families.”
McDonalds started exploring web filtering solutions to block pornography on WiFi networks in its restaurants and, after researching the available options, McDonalds implemented a WiFi network porn filtering solution in Q1, 2016. Last week, McDonalds announced that a web filtering solution had been deployed to block porn on WiFi networks in its restaurants.
WiFi Network Porn Filtering to be Implemented by Starbucks
Hot on the heels of the announcement by McDonalds was a press release confirming that Starbucks had taken the decision to block porn on WiFi networks in its coffee shops.
Two days after the McDonalds announcement, Enough is Enough reported that Starbucks had also opted to block porn on WiFi networks in its coffee shops in the United States. When the evaluation process has been completed, and a suitable WiFi network porn filtering solution has been selected, it will be rolled out worldwide across the company´s coffee shops to ensure that all customers are protected from exposure to pornographic material.
A spokesperson for Starbucks said, “We are in the process of evaluating a global protocol to address this in all of our company owned stores, and are in active discussions with organizations on implementing the right, broad-based solution that would remove any illegal and other egregious content.”
Enough is Enough has been campaigning for safer Internet since the group was formed in 1994. In 2014 the organization launched a new campaign to place pressure on corporations in America to use WiFi network porn filtering to ensure that children and families could access the Internet safely without being exposed to pornographic material.
Increasing Pressure on Corporations to Implement WiFi Filtering Solutions to Block Pornography
Enough is Enough claim “Internet safety is now the fourth top-ranked health issue for U.S. children with peer- reviewed research confirming Internet pornography as a public health crisis.” The organization says that individuals are increasingly using open WiFi networks to gain access to online pornography and child pornography. They cite news reports that public WiFi networks are also being used by individuals to share obscene, abusive, and illegal images.
Enough Is Enough has been putting an increasing amount of pressure on organizations in the United States over the past two years to carefully control the content that can be accessed via WiFi networks. The organization has now gained the support from 75 partner organizations including the Salvation Army, National Coalition to Protect Child Sexual Abuse, U.S Department of Justice, American Family Association (AFA), Family Research Council (FRC), and the National Center on Sexual Exploitation.
Enough is Enough and the National Center on Sexual Exploitation recently appealed to Starbucks to follow the lead of McDonalds and implement a WiFi web filtering solution to block porn on WiFi networks accessible to its customers.
Both organizations will now be increasing their efforts to get other corporations in the United States to make a similar decision and block porn on WiFi networks in order to provide family-friendly Internet access.
New Locky ransomware variants are frequently developed to keep security researchers on their toes. The malicious ransomware is highly sophisticated and further development allows the gang behind the crypto-ransomware to keep raking in millions of dollars in ransoms.
According to security researchers at Avira, a new Locky variant has now been discovered with new capabilities that spell trouble for businesses, even those with highly advanced security systems in place. Now, even rapid detection of Locky will not prevent files from being encrypted. Even if Locky cannot contact its command and control server, it will still execute and encrypt files. Previous Locky ransomware variants would only encrypt files after C&C server contact was established.
This means that if Locky is detected on a computer, shutting down the network or blocking communications will not prevent files from being encrypted. This is one of the few options open to organizations to limit the damage caused if ransomware is discovered.
New Locky Ransomware Variants Encrypt Without C&C Server Contact
Many of the latest ransomware strains use public key cryptography to lock users’ files. They will not encrypt files if systems are taken offline because they require contact with a C&C server to obtain the public-private key pairs that are used to lock files. These are only generated if a connection to the C&C is made. The private key that is used to unlock files is stored on the attacker’s server and never on the local machine that is infected.
Without a connection, unique keys for each user cannot be generated. This means that even if millions of computers are locked, one key will unlock them all. By generating a unique key for each infection, a ransom must be paid for each device that is encrypted. Without this, a business would only need to pay one ransom payment to unlock all infected devices.
Fortunately, that is the case with the latest Locky strain. If no C&C contact is made, all infected devices will be locked with the same key. That means only one ransom payment may need to be paid. However, if C&C contact is established, the AES encryption key will be encrypted using a separate RSA encryption key for each device and multiple payments will be required.
Avira reports that the new Locky ransomware variants use separate types of victim IDs, depending on whether files were encrypted offline or online. Offline infections use a 32-character alphabet for the victim IDs – “YBNDRFG8EJKMCPQX0T1UWISZA345H769” – rather than hex digits. By doing so, the attackers can determine which key to supply to unloick the encryption.
According to Avira’s Moritz Kroll, “Theoretically, if a company with a domain controller is hit by the new Locky and sees a non-hexdigit ID like ‘BSYA47W0NGXSWFJ9’, it might be cheaper to generate a victim ID with the same public key ID but without saying it’s a corporate computer.” That key can then be used for all other devices that have been infected.
While this may work, it is no substitute for having a viable backup. It is also far better to block the malicious spam emails that are used to deliver the ransomware using an advanced spam filtering solution such as SpamTitan, and to prevent drive-by downloads using WebTitian.
If you want to keep your computers and network protected, you should ensure that browsers are patched as soon as updates are made available. However, end users may be fooled into taking action to keep their computers secure and inadvertently use fake Firefox updates.
Fake FireFox Updates Used to Install the Kovter Trojan
Fake Firefox updates are being used by the gang behind the Kovter Trojan. A new version of the fileless malware has been identified recently, and it is infecting users by posing as a fake Firefox update.
The cybercriminal gang behind Kovter frequently tweak the malware and come up with new ways of infecting end users. Kovter is a particular worry as it can be particularly difficult to detect. Being fileless, there are no actual files to detect. The malware resides only in the memory, and it ensures it is reloaded into the memory each time a computer is rebooted with a Windows registry component.
Kovter can perform a range of malicious activities, such as redirecting users to malicious websites, performing click fraud, downloading other malware, and now also encrypting files. The latest variant discovered by CheckPoint also has ransomware capabilities.
When users visit a malicious or infected website they are presented with fake Firefox updates and are urged to download the latest version to keep their computers secure. Researchers at Barkly discovered that the gang behind the latest Kovter campaign are using a legitimate certificate to fool antivirus engines. The certificate was issued to Comodo, although it has since been revoked. Anti-virus engines are also now being updated to detect the malware and block its download.
Preventing Drive by Malware Downloads
There are a number of steps that can be taken to prevent drive-by downloads of malware such as Kovter. Policies should be implemented that prohibit end users from performing software updates, which should be left to the IT team to handle. Patch management policies should be developed and implemented to make sure that when software updates and patches are issued, they are installed promptly or preferably automatically.
Browsers should never be updated outside the normal update process. To check if the latest version is installed, simply click on the help function, followed by the About option, and the browser will check to determine whether an update is available.
A web filtering solution is also an important security control to employ to prevent drive-by downloads. A web filter can be configured to block access to webpages known to contain malware and restrict access to non-work related websites which carry a high risk of malware infections. Some web filtering solutions – WebTitan Gateway for example – can also scan websites in real-time to check for known indicators of drive-by downloads and exploit kits. WebTitan then prevents the sites from being visited.
A new law has been approved by the House of Representatives that will require government agencies to block pornography on computers used by federal employees.
The accessing of pornography in the workplace is a serious issue. While the employees who access the adult material at work may feel like they are doing no harm, the accessing of adult websites carries an unnecessary risk of malware being downloaded onto computers and government networks. The recent massive data breaches experienced by government agencies have highlighted the need for improved protections to be implemented.
Eliminating Pornography from Agencies Act Passed by House
Rep. Gary Palmer (R-Alabama)-sponsored the bill – the Eliminating Pornography from Agencies Act (H.R. 901) – which is part of a new government reform package. Palmer saw a need to introduce new laws to block pornography on computers after it became clear that the problem was widespread in federal agencies.
Federal workers were suspected of accessing pornography at work and internal investigations revealed that a number of workers had been accessing sexually explicit material; in some cases, for many hours each day.
One notable instance involved a worker who was suspected of accessing pornography on a federal computer. When EPA Office of the Inspector General (OIG) investigators visited the employee, he was actually viewing pornography at the time. He admitted to accessing the material for two to six hours a day.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) OIG also conducted investigations. A 2010 report indicated 33 employees had been discovered to be accessing pornography at work. Last year, media reports suggested there was a porn crisis in the federal government, saying the problem was serious and widespread.
Aside from the huge drain on productivity, if an agency fails to block pornography on computers there is a considerable risk of employees infecting their computers with malware or causing a data breach.
The reform bill was passed 241-181. The new law will require agencies to block pornography on computers for all workers, although access will still be permitted for certain individuals who require access to the material as part of their investigations.
WebTitan – A Quick and Effective Way to Block Pornography on Computers
WebTitan is a highly effective, but easy to implement web filtering solution that can be used to quickly block a wide range of inappropriate web content from being accessed by employees. WebTitan is an enterprise-class web filter that allows organizations to block specific categories of web content such as pornography.
Once the solution is installed, to block pornography on computers system administrators only have to tick a checkbox. Websites and webpages containing pornographic images will no longer be able to be accessed by employees. Since WebTitan ties in with Active Directory, it is easy for different permissions to be set for individuals, user groups, or for the entire organization.
Filters can also be applied to block productivity draining websites such as Social media platforms, gambling websites, and gaming sites. Bandwidth draining activities such as video and audit streaming can also be blocked, as can websites known to contain exploit kits or malware.
WebTitan can be used to quickly and easily enforce acceptable usage policies and improve the productivity of the workforce as well as an organization’s security posture.
Mobile ransomware may not be nearly as prevalent as its PC counterpart, but attacks on mobile devices are on the rise according to a new report issued by anti-virus firm Kaspersky Lab.
Kaspersky Lab assessed thwarted ransomware attacks on mobile users over a period of two years and saw that the numbers of attacks doubled, signifying a worrying new trend.
Between 2014 and 2015, 2.04% of malware attacks on mobile users involved ransomware. Between 2015 and 2016, the percentage of ransomware attacks rose to 4.63%. During that period, 136,532 attacks took place.
Kaspersky Lab noted that the ransomware used to infect mobile devices differs considerably from the strains used to infect PC users. While Locky, CryptXXX, and RAA are now the main threats affecting PCs, the main mobile ransomware strains currently being used are Fusob, Small, Svpeng, and Pletor.
Mobile ransomware tends not to use encryption to lock files, instead malicious software is developed that blocks users from accessing their device. Oftentimes, this is achieved with a simple HTML overlay. Encryption is more effective on PCs because many users fail to back up their data, or when they do they leave their backup devices connected. Many strains of PC ransomware are able to delete backup files or encrypt them, leaving end users with no alternative but to pay the ransom or lose their data forever.
Many mobile users automatically backup their data in the cloud. If data is ever lost or encrypted, files can easily be recovered. However, overlays prevent the user from being able to access their files from the device. With mobile devices victims cannot simply take out a hard drive and plug it into another machine and manually remove malicious files. If an infection takes place, users either have to pay the ransom or replace their device. Provided the ransom is lower, many users will end up paying.
Without the need for encryption, the development of mobile ransomware is considerably cheaper. The ransoms that can be demanded may be lower than for PC infections, but campaigns can be highly profitable for cybercriminals.
Criminal gangs are also using an affiliate model to spread infections. There is usually no shortage of actors willing to invest the time distributing the malicious software in exchange for a cut of the ransom. In many cases, signing up for these affiliate ransomware campaigns is easy. The developers of the malware release kits to make it as easy as possible. Programming skill is not even needed.
Mobile Ransomware Attacks Will Continue
The use of mobile ransomware is increasing significantly because it is effective. An increasing amount of data are now stored on mobile devices, and end users – and business users in particular – are unwilling to lose their data. As long as ransoms are paid, attacks will continue and are likely to increase. Cybercriminals will only stop developing new mobile ransomware strains when the campaigns prove to be ineffective and unprofitable.
A new threat has recently been discovered by security researchers at Phishme: Bart ransomware. The new ransomware variant is not as sophisticated as Locky and Samsa, but it is still highly effective and poses a risk to businesses. Should end users be fooled into opening spam emails, file recovery will only be possible via backups if the ransom demand is not paid.
Bart Ransomware Locks Files in Password-Protected ZIP Files
Bart Ransomware bears a number of similarities to other ransomware variants that have been discovered in recent months. If installed on a device, media files, photos, documents, spreadsheets, databases, and a host of other files are located and encrypted. Bart ransomware also encrypts .n64 ROM files, which was previously unique to Locky ransomware. Bart is also delivered using the same Dridex botnet that was used to deliver Locky.
Bart ransomware also uses a payment interface that looks very similar to Locky. However, there are notable differences to Locky and other ransomware variants. Bart demands a particularly high payment from its victims. Rather than a demand of 0.5 Bitcoin, Bart asks for 3 Bitcoin per infected machine – Approximately $1988 per device.
There are also notable differences in the method used to encrypt files. Bart doesn’t use public key cryptography. Files are added to zip files which are then password protected. In order to unzip files, a password must be supplied. These passwords are only supplied to the victim if the sizeable ransom is paid.
Bart also does not use the typical command and control center infrastructure. Most new ransomware variants communicate with the attackers’ command and control center before files are encrypted, but that does not appear to happen with Bart.
New Ransomware Variant Delivered via Spam Emails
The ransomware has been developed to attack users in the west, and will not lock files if the operating system is in Russian, Ukrainian, or Belorussian.
To prevent infection, it is essential that end users do not open the infected email attachments. Since the emails may appear benign to end users, organizations should take steps to prevent the spam emails from being delivered. One way of doing this is to use SpamTitan. SpamTitan can be configured to block zip files and prevent them from being delivered to end users.
If spam emails are not delivered, end users will not be able to inadvertently infect their devices. Furthermore, the cost of deploying SpamTitan is likely to be considerably less than the cost of a single ransom payment to resolve a Bart infection.
There have been a number of high-profile data breaches reported in recent weeks, now Citrix has announced its users have been impacted after receiving multiple reports of GoToMyPC password reuse attacks. An investigation into the attacks revealed that the account compromises were not the result of a Citrix data breach, but that the attacks had been made possible due to poor security practices of some of its users.
Passwords Reset After Spate of GoToMyPC Password Reuse Attacks
After discovering the GoToMyPC password reuse attacks, Citrix performed a password reset on all users’ accounts to reduce the risk of account compromises. When users next login to the remote desktop access service they will be required to set up a new password before being allowed to access the service.
While Citrix has taken steps to protect its own users, simply changing passwords on GoToMyPC will not protect users who share passwords across multiple applications and web services. It is therefore important for users to login to all online accounts that have the same password set and to create new, unique passwords for each.
Following the cyberattacks on LinkedIn, MySpace, and Tumblr, login credentials were openly sold on darknet marketplaces. Many individuals purchased the data and have been searching online platforms to find users that have accounts elsewhere. The same passwords are then tried to see if access can be gained.
Shortly after these data dumps, numerous Twitter accounts were hacked, including those belonging to a number of high profile celebrities – Katy Perry, Mark Zuckerberg, Tenacious D, and Lana Del Rey for example. While the hacking of a Twitter account may only be an inconvenience for many victims, far more serious hacks have occurred.
TeamViewer remote desktop connection software was targeted by attackers who had obtained data from the LinkedIn breach. Users’ accounts were accessed and the software leveraged to obtain access to users’ PayPal accounts and bank accounts, primarily using passwords saved in browsers. The victims had their bank and PayPal accounts emptied. Some individuals also reported that TeamViewer had been used to install ransomware on their computers.
Since many individuals share passwords on personal accounts and business accounts, the latter may also be compromised and that can have highly serious implications.
The Danger of Password Sharing
All organizations face a threat of cyberattacks and sooner or later it is likely that one of those attacks will be successful. If users’ login credentials are obtained, they can be used to access accounts on other web and software platforms.
The spate of recent attacks shows how dangerous it can be to use the same passwords for multiple accounts. While it is certainly convenient to use the same password on multiple platforms, users stand to have their entire online identity hijacked as a result of a single cyberattack on one company.
To limit the damage caused, it is essential to use a unique, complex password for each online account, never to recycle passwords, and to update passwords frequently. Sys admins should ensure that password policies are set that require complex passwords to be created. Password expiration policies should also be developed and implemented. Password managers can be used to help end users keep track of all of their passwords.
RAA Ransomware Delivered via Spam Email
First, all drives – local, network, and portable – are scanned for specific file extensions, including documents and spreadsheets (DOC, RTF, XLS, CSV, PDF), compressed files (ZIP, RAR), image files (JPG, PSD, PNG, DWG, CDR, CD), database files (DBF, MDF), and LCD disk images.
The RAA ransomware is set to run automatically each time the computer is booted, and it will install Pony each time. Since the ransomware runs on boot it will encrypt any of the above file extensions that have been created or downloaded since the last time the ransomware was executed. At present, there is no way of decrypting the files without paying the ransom.
To protect against attacks, end users must be vigilant and not open any files attachments sent from unknown individuals. Sys admins must also ensure that all files are regularly backed up and back up devices are air-gapped.
Each year, the Ponemon Institute conducts an annual benchmark study on the cost of a data breach. The IBM-sponsored report reveals just how damaging data breaches can be to a company’s finances. Responding to a data breach costs companies millions of dollars, and each year the cost rises.
Last year, the Cost of a Data Breach study placed the average cost at 3.79 million. This year, the average cost has risen to $4 million. The average cost per stolen record rose from $154 to $158 over the past 12 months.
Average Cost of a Data Breach in the United States is $7.01 Million
However, those figures are taken from the global data collected for the study. The costs incurred by U.S businesses are much higher. Take the figures for the United States alone, and the average cost is $7.01 million. Last year the average cost of a breach response in the United States was $6.53 million.
Organizations in the United States can expect to pay costs of $221 per record, although organizations in the healthcare industry, financial, and life science sector can expect to pay far higher amounts. The cost of a data breach in the healthcare industry is a staggering $402 per record. The data also show that the average number of records exposed per incident also increased.
In the United States, the total cost of a data breach rose by 7% over the space of a year, and by 2% per stolen or compromised record. The Ponemon Institute offers some suggestions why the overall cost of a data breach has increased by such a high degree. One of the main reasons is a substantial rise in indirect costs. When an organization suffers a security breach that exposes sensitive data such as credit card numbers, financial information, Social Security numbers, or medical records, consumers are increasingly taking their business elsewhere. The Ponemon Institute refers to this as the abnormal churn rate.
Organizations Should Try to Reduce Churn Rate After a Data Breach
One of the findings of the research is the higher the churn rate is following a data breach, the higher the cost of the breach will be. Companies that experienced an abnormal churn rate of lower than 1%, had to pay average breach costs of $5.4 million. The cost rose to $6.0 million with an abnormal churn rate of between 1% and 2%, while a churn rate of above 4% resulted in average costs of $12.1 million.
The industries most likely to see customers leave and find alternative companies to do business with were healthcare organizations, financial companies, service organizations, and companies operating in the technology and life sciences industries. Public sector companies, research organizations, and the media experienced the lowest churn rates.
Ponemon suggests that one of the best ways to reduce the financial impact of a data breach is to put greater effort into retaining customers and adopting strategies to preserve brand value and reputation. Consumers now understand that data breaches are a fact of life, but they expect action to be taken by organizations that have suffered a breach that exposed their personal information. Issuing breach notifications quickly, offering credit monitoring services to affected individuals, and taking steps to greatly improve security can all help to reduce fallout after a data breach occurs.
Malicious Attacks Cost the Most to Resolve
All data breaches will result in organizations incurring costs, but the cause of a data breach will dictate how high those costs will be. Malicious attacks on organizations were discovered to cost the most to resolve. In the United States, the average cost per record for a malicious or criminal attack was $236. For system glitches the cost was £213 per record, and for human error the cost was $197 per record.
The costs incurred can be reduced significantly if organizations take steps to prepare for data breaches. The Ponemon Institute determined that having an effective breach response plan can greatly reduce the cost of a data breach. When an organization can respond quickly to a breach the costs tend to be much lower.
The average time to contain a data breach was determined to be 58 days. Organizations that were able to contain a data breach in less than 30 days paid an average cost of $5.24 million per breach, compared to $8.85 million when the time to contain the breach exceeded 30 days.
It also pays to invest in technologies that allow organizations to identify breaches quickly when they do occur. The mean time to identify a breach was determined to be 191 days – more than 6 months. When the mean time to identify a breach was less than 100 days, the breach cost was $5.83 million. When the mean time to identify a data breach exceeded 100 days, the mean cost rose to $8.01 million.
The costs of breach resolution are continuing to rise. Organizations should therefore consider investing more heavily in technologies to prevent data breaches and to increase the speed at which they are detected. The results of the study clearly demonstrate that having a tested breach response plan in place is essential if costs are to be reduced.
The security threat from bloatware was made abundantly clear last year with the discovery of a Lenovo bloatware vulnerability, affecting the Superfish Adware program that came pre-installed on Lenovo laptops.
Bloatware is a term used to describe software applications and programs that are largely unnecessary, yet are pre-installed on new computer and laptops. The software programs can slow down computers and take up a lot of memory, yet offer the user little in the way of benefits. They are primarily used to update application features rather than to enhance security.
Unfortunately, these pre-installed programs have been discovered – on numerous occasions – to contain security vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malicious actors and used for man-in-the-middle attacks. They can even let attackers run arbitrary code, allow privilege escalation, or perform malicious software updates.
Now a new Lenovo bloatware vulnerability has been uncovered. This time it concerns the company’s software updater which has been found to contain a vulnerability that could potentially be exploited allowing man-in-the-middle attacks to be conducted.
New Bloatware Vulnerability Found in Lenovo Accelerator Application Updater: Uninstall Recommended
The Lenovo Accelerator Application has been pre-installed on a wide range of desktop computers and notebooks shipped pre-installed with Windows 10. In total, well over 100 different models of Lenovo notebooks and desktops have the Lenovo Accelerator Application installed. Lenovo says the application is used to speed up the launching of Lenovo applications and communicates with the company’s servers to determine whether application updates exist.
The UpdateAgent pings Lenovo’s servers every 10 minutes to check whether updates have been released. However, the application has recently been discovered to contain a security vulnerability that could be exploited by attackers. DuoLabs investigated a number of companies to check for security vulnerabilities in pre-installed software applications and found that Lenovo’s UpdateAgent was particularly vulnerable to attacks.
DuoLabs reported that the updater had “no native security,” and that “executables and manifests are transmitted in the clear and no code-signing checks are enforced.” The security flaws could allow an attacker to intercept these communications and manipulate responses, even allowing malicious software updates to be performed.
Lenovo has responded by issuing an advisory recommending all owners of the affected devices uninstall the software application. This is a straightforward task that can be performed by accessing the Apps and Features application on a Windows 10 computer, selecting the Lenovo Accelerator Application and manually uninstalling the program.
A new WordPress plugin vulnerability was recently uncovered that is being actively exploited. The vulnerability affects the WP Mobile Detector plugin, which is used to determine whether a website is being viewed on a desktop or mobile device. The plugin then serves a compatible WordPress theme.
The plugin was one of the first to be able to distinguish whether a device was a standard mobile or a Smartphone, and as of the start of May, the plugin had been installed on more than 10,000 WordPress websites.
WP Mobile Detector WordPress Plugin Vulnerability Exploited to Install Porn Spam Doorways
The WordPress plugin vulnerability was detected by Plugin Vulnerabilities, which noticed a HEAD request for a file called /wp-mobile-detector/resize.php, even though the plugin had not been installed on the site.
Researchers at Plugin Vulnerabilities concluded that the request was made by an individual attempting to determine whether the plugin had been installed in order to exploit a vulnerability. After searching for reports of a known vulnerability and finding none, researchers investigated further and discovered the plugin had an arbitrary file upload vulnerability.
The vulnerability is straightforward to exploit and can be used to upload malicious files to the cache directory, host spam content, redirect users to malicious websites, or install malware. Since the plugin performed no checks to validate input from untrusted sources, an attacker would be able to insert a src variable containing a malicious URL and PHP code.
Many of the infections uncovered so far have involved the installation of porn spam doorways. Sucuri reports that the WordPress plugin vulnerability has been exploited since May 27.
Since the discovery of the WP Mobile Detector plugin flaw last week, the plugin was temporarily removed from the WordPress plugin directory. The developer of the WP Mobile Detector plugin has now fixed the vulnerability. Any site owner that has the plugin installed should immediately update to version 3.6.
However, simply updating to the latest version of the plugin will not remove malware if it has already been installed. If web shells have already been installed, attackers could still have an active backdoor to the site allowing them to continue to upload malicious files or inject malicious code into webpages.
One of the easiest ways to check to see if a site has been compromised is to look for a directory called gopni3g in the site root. The directory will contain a story.php file, and “.htaccess and subdirectories with spammy files and templates,” according to Sucuri researcher Douglas Santos.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has issued a new security alert warning of a new wave of extortion email schemes. The alert was issued after its Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) started receiving multiple reports from individuals who had been threatened with the exposure of their sensitive data.
Cybercriminals are quick to respond to large-scale data breaches and use the fear surrounding the attacks to scam individuals into paying ransoms, clicking on links to malicious websites, or opening infected email attachments. In recent weeks, the Internet has been awash with news reports of major data breaches that have hit networking sites and a number of popular Internet platforms.
Major data breaches affected LinkedIn, MySpace, and Tumblr, and while the stolen data are old, hundreds of millions of individuals have been affected.
These cyberattacks occurred in 2012 and 2013, although the data stolen in the attacks have just been listed for sale online. These major data breaches had gone undiscovered until recently.
Extortion Email Schemes Threaten Exposure of Sensitive Data
Due to the volume of logins that were exposed in these attacks and the popularity of the sites, many individuals may be concerned that their login credentials may have been obtained by hackers. Cybercriminals are taking advantage of this fear and are sending out huge volumes of spam emails advising individuals that their sensitive data have been obtained.
In the emails, individuals are told that their name, address, telephone number, credit card details, and other highly sensitive data are being held and that they will be distributed to friends and family if a ransom is not paid. The attackers warn their victims that access to social media accounts has been gained and that the attackers have details of all of the victim’s social media contacts.
The scammers are also threatening to email and mail out details of credit card transactions and internet activity to friends, family, and employers, suggesting that the payment to prevent this from happening will be much lower than the cost of a divorce, and low in comparison to the affect it will have on relationships with friends and on social standing.
To stop the distribution of these data, victims are required to pay the attackers anywhere from 2 to 5 Bitcoin – Between $250 and $1,200. A Bitcoin address is sent in the email which the victims must use. This ensures the transaction remains anonymous.
After analyzing the extortion email schemes, the FBI has concluded that the attacks are the work of multiple individuals. The FBI has advised against paying the ransoms as this will only ensure that this criminal activity continues. Paying a ransom is no guarantee that further demands will not be received.
Any person receiving an email that they believe to be an extortion email scheme should contact their local FBI office and send a copy of the email with the subject “extortion E-mail scheme,” along with details of the Bitcoin address where payment has been asked to be sent.
Extortion email schemes are often sent out randomly in spam email; however, responding to an email will alert the attacker that the email account is active and is being checked. The best course of action is to ignore the email, to log into social media accounts and change all passwords, and to carefully monitor bank accounts and credit card statements. The FBI also advises individuals to ensure social media accounts are configured with the highest level of privacy settings and to be extremely careful about sharing any sensitive data online.
On May 12, the microblogging website Tumblr notified users of a data breach that occurred in 2013. The company had kept quiet about the number of site users that were affected, although it has since emerged that 65 million account credentials were stolen in the Tumblr data breach. Stolen email addresses and passwords were recently offered for sale on a Darknet marketplace called TheRealDeal.
Tumblr Data Breach Ranks as One of the 5 Biggest Data Breaches of All Time
The massive Tumblr data breach may not be the largest ever discovered, but it certainly ranks as one of the biggest, behind the breach of 360 million MySpace account details, the theft of 164-million LinkedIn account credentials, and the 152 million-record Adobe breach. All of these huge data breaches occurred in 2013 with the exception of the LinkedIn breach, which happened a year earlier.
These breaches have something else in common. They were all discovered recently and the stolen data from all four data breaches have been listed for sale on illegal Darknet marketplaces by the same individual: A Russian hacker with the account “peace_of_mind” – more commonly known as “Peace”. It is not clear whether this individual is responsible for all four of these data breaches, but he/she appears to have now obtained all of the data.
The person responsible for the theft appears to have been sitting on the data for some time as according to Tumblr, as the login credentials do not appear to have been used.
Fortunately, the passwords were salted and hashed. Unfortunately, it would appear that the SHA1 hashing algorithm was used, which is not as secure as the latest algorithms. This means that hackers could potentially crack the passwords. The passwords were also salted so this offers more protection for individuals affected by the Tumblr data breach. However, as a precaution, site users who joined the website in 2013 or earlier should login and change their passwords.
Do You Reuse Passwords on Multiple Sites?
Even if victims of the Tumblr data breach have changed their password on the site before 2013, they may still be at risk of having their online accounts compromised if their password has been used for multiple online accounts.
If you have been affected by the Adobe, LinkedIn, MySpace, or Tumblr data breach, and there is a possibility that you have reused passwords on any on other platforms it is strongly advisable to change all of your passwords.
Peace may not be the only individual currently in possession of the data, and it is highly unlikely that the data will only be sold to one individual.
If you are unsure if your login credentials have been compromised, you can check by entering your email address or username on haveibeenpwned.com
A new phishing activity report published by the Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) shows that the threat from phishing websites is greater than any other time in the history of the Internet. The latest phishing activity report shows that in the past six months, the number of phishing websites has increased by a staggering 250%. Most of the new websites were detected in March 2016.
The Rising Threat from Phishing Websites Should Not Be Ignored
APWG was founded in 2003 in response to the rise in cybercrime and the use of phishing to attack consumers. The purpose of the organization is to unify the global response to cybercriminal activity, monitor the latest threats, and share data to better protect businesses and consumers.
In 2004, APWG started tracking phishing and reporting on the growing threat from phishing websites. During the past 12 years, the number of phishing websites being created by cybercriminals has grown steadily; however, the past six months has seen a massive rise in new websites that trick users into revealing sensitive data.
APWG reports that there is an increase in new malicious websites around the holiday season. In the run up to the holiday period when online shopping increases and Internet traffic spikes, there are more opportunities to relieve online shoppers of their credit card details, login credentials, and other sensitive data.
In late 2015, cybercriminals increased their efforts and there was the usual spike in the number of new phishing websites. However, after the holiday period ended APWG expected activity to reduce. That didn’t happen. New sites were still being created at elevated levels.
In the first quarter of 2016, APWG detected 289,371 new phishing websites were created. However, almost half of the new websites – 123,555 of them – were detected in March 2016. Aside from a slight dip in February, the number of new websites created has increased each month. March saw almost twice the number of new sites than were created in December. The figures for Q1 and for March were the highest ever seen.
Retail and Financial Sectors Most Frequently Targeted by Phishers
Phishers tend to favor well-known brands. The phishing activity report indicates little has changed in this regard. Between 406 and 431 brands are targeted each month. Most of the new sites target the retail industry which accounts for 42.71% of the new phishing websites detected in the first quarter of 2016. The financial sector was second with 18.67% of new sites, followed by the payment service industry with 14,74% and the ISP industry with 12.01%. The remaining 11.87% of new sites targeted a wide range of industries. The United States is the most targeted country and hosts the most phishing websites.
While phishing websites are now favored by cybercriminals, emails continue to be used to send malicious links and malware-infected attachments to consumers and businesses. In January, 99,384 phishing email reports were sent to APWG. The number increased to over 229,000 in February and stayed at that level in March.
APWG also tracked malware infections. In the first quarter of the year, 20 million malware samples were intercepted – an average of 6.67 million malware samples a month.
The report shows how critical it is for business to take action to prevent end users from visiting malicious websites and the seriousness of the threat from phishing websites.
One of the best ways that businesses can reduce the risk of employees visiting phishing websites is to use a web filtering solution. By controlling the sites that can be accessed by employees, the risk of phishing, malware infections, and ransomware attacks can be greatly reduced.
Surprisingly, after ESET sent a request for the TeslaCrypt ransomware master key to the criminal gang behind the attacks, they responded by making the decryption key public and even issued an apology. The surprise move signals the end of the ransomware that was used primarily to target gamers
TeslaCrypt Ransomware Master Key Released
So does the release of the TeslaCrypt ransomware master key mean that the attacks will now stop? The answer to that is a little complicated. Attacks using TeslaCrypt will slow and stop soon, and even if some individuals have their computer files locked by the ransomware they will not need to pay a ransom.
Once the TeslaCrypt ransomware master key was made public, security companies started work on decryption tools to unlock infections. ESET have added the key to their TeslaCrypt decryption tool, and Kaspersky Lab similarly used the master key to update the decryption tool it had been using to unlock earlier versions of the ransomware.
That does not mean that the criminal gang behind the campaign will stop its malicious activity. It just means that the gang will stop using TeslaCrypt. There are many other types of ransomware that can be used for attacks. In fact, it would appear that TeslaCrypt has now simply been replaced with a new form of ransomware called CryptXXX. According to ESET, many of the distributers of TeslaCrypt have already switched to CryptXXX.
Under normal circumstances, contacting a criminal gang and asking for the TeslaCrypt ransomware master key would not have worked. Attackers running profitable ransomware campaigns are unlikely to respond to a polite request asking to unlock an infection without paying a ransom, let alone supply a master key that can be used to unlock all infections.
The reason for the release is TeslaCrypt was already being phased out. ESET researcher Igor Kabina noticed that TeslaCrypt infections were slowing, which signaled that either the gang behind the ransomware was phasing it out in favor of a new malware, or that a new and updated version of TeslaCrypt would soon be released. Kabina decided to contact the attackers through the channels set up to allow victims to contact the gang and pay the ransom.
Kabina asked for the private decryption keys to unlock all four versions of the ransomware. He was answered within one day and was provided the key for the version he claimed to have been infected with. He then sent another message requesting the release of the latest key to unlock v4 of the ransomware, and noticed on the TeslaCrypt page that the gang had announced that the project had been closed. The universal key had been posted on an anonymous .onion page that can be accessed using the Tor browser.
There is a constant battle between security companies and ransomware developers. Oftentimes, ransomware variants contain flaws that allow antivirus companies to develop decryption tools. When these tools are released attackers work rapidly to repair the security flaw and release a new, more robust version of the ransomware. This was the case with TeslaCrypt. Flaws in the first version allowed a tool to be developed. A decryption tool was released, and version 2 of the ransomware was released. TeslaCrypt is now on the fourth version.
As with Cryptowall, TeslaCrypt has now been shut down; however, CryptXXX is still very much active and is still being updated. Furthermore, the attackers have learnt from their mistakes and have developed CryptXXX to be a much harder nut to crack.
CryptXXX is run alongside a program that monitors the system on which it is run to check if it is in a virtual environment or sandbox or otherwise being probed. If abnormal behavior is identified, the encryption routine is restarted. CryptXXX is also spread via spam email, exploit kits, and malvertising. This means that it is much easier to spread and more attacks are likely to occur. Companies and individuals therefore face a much higher risk of an attack.
The release of the TeslaCrypt ransomware master key is therefore only good news if you have been infected with TeslaCrypt. With the move to CryptXXX it is even more important to have solutions in place to prevent attacks, and a plan in place to deal with an attack when it occurs.
A new study has recently been published showing the impact of security breaches on brand image, and how the behavior of consumers changes when companies experience data breaches that expose private data.
Cyberattacks are now taking place with such frequency that data breaches are now to be expected. It is no longer a case of whether a security breach will occur, it is now just a case of when it will happen. Even with the best protections in place to protect sensitive data, breaches will still occur.
Many consumers are aware that the current threat levels are greater than ever and that cyberattacks will occur. However, how do consumers react to breaches of their personal information? Do they forgive and forget or are they taking their business elsewhere?
What is the Impact of Security Breaches on Brand Image?
The FireEye study set out to examine the impact of security breaches on brand image. 2,000 interviews were conducted on consumers in the United States to find out whether security incidents changed behavior and whether data breaches altered perceptions of companies and trust in brands.
The results of the survey clearly show that the failure to invest in robust cybersecurity defenses can have a major impact on revenue. 76% of surveyed consumers claimed they would take their business elsewhere if they believed a company’s data handling practices were poor or that the company was negligent with regard to data security.
75% of respondents said they would likely stop making purchases from a company if they felt that a security incident resulted from a failure of the company to prioritize cybersecurity.
Loss of business is not the only problem companies will face following a data breach. If a breach of personal information occurs and data are used by criminals for identity theft or fraud, 59% of consumers would take legal action to recover losses.
Even when companies take action to mitigate the risk of losses being suffered by consumers – such as providing identity theft protection services – brand image remains tarnished. Reputation damage after a data breach is suffered regardless of the actions taken by companies to mitigate risk. It can also take a considerable amount of time to regain consumers’ trust. More than half of respondents (54%) said that their impression of companies was negatively impacted after a security breach occurred.
Fast action following a data breach can help to restore confidence, but this is expected by consumers. The survey showed that 90% of consumers expect to be notified of a breach of data within 24 hours of an attack taking place, yet this is something that rarely happens. All too often consumers are made to wait weeks before they are informed of a breach of their personal information.
The study also shows that as a result of large-scale breaches consumers are now much less trusting of companies’ ability to keep data secure. They are also much more cautious about providing personal information. 72% of consumers said they now share less information with companies due to the volume of data breaches now being suffered.
The take home message from the survey is organizations must do more to protect consumer data and to prevent data breaches from occurring. If companies invest heavily in cybersecurity and can demonstrate to consumers that they take privacy and security seriously, the negative impact of security breaches on brand image is likely to be reduced.
The not-for-profit technology industry association CompTIA recently released its 2016 International Trends in Cybersecurity report after analyzing the current state of cybersecurity and assessing behaviors and techniques currently being used by organizations around the world to tackle the growing risk of cyberattacks.
To compile the report, CompTIA surveyed 1,509 IT security professionals from 12 countries around the world, including Australia, Canada, India, Brazil, Malaysia, Japan, South Africa, the UAE and the UK.
The International Trends in Cybersecurity report shows that information security is still a major concern for IT and business executives, which is perhaps no surprise given the number of cybersecurity threats they now have to deal with. The report showed that over the course of the past 12 months, 73% of organizations had experienced at least one security incident and 60% of those security incidents were classed as serious.
The highest number of security incidents occurred in India, where 94% of companies experienced a security breach in the past 12 months, closely followed by Malaysia on 89%, and Brazil and Mexico with 87% of companies suffering at least one breach. Japan and the UAE fared the best, with just 39% and 40% of companies self-reporting a security breach.
Security incidents involving mobile devices are becoming much more prevalent as the use of the devices increases. 76% of companies across all 12 countries experienced a mobile-related data breach in the past 12 months. In Thailand, 95% of companies had experienced a mobile-related security breach. In the UK, 64% of companies experienced a mobile-related incident. Companies in Japan and the UAE fared the best with 60% of companies experiencing breach of mobile data.
Human error continues to be a major cause of security breaches and the situation is getting worse. Companies are tackling the issue with training to improve awareness of cybersecurity issues and ensure security best practices are adopted.
Nearly 80% of managers responsible for data security expect cybersecurity to become even more important over the next two years. The increasing reliance on mobile technology and cloud computing has required a major rethink about how systems and data need to be protected from attack. These were listed as the main drivers behind changes in cybersecurity practices in 10 out of the 12 countries where respondents were located.
To reduce the risk of malware infections from websites you can avoid certain types of sites that are commonly used by cybercriminals to infect visitors. Sites containing pornography for instance, torrents sites, and online marketplaces selling illegal medication for example. However, while these sites are often compromised with malware or contain malicious code, they are far from the most common sites used by cybercriminals to infect visitors.
The unfortunately reality is that browsing the Internet and only visiting what are perceived to be “safe sites” does not mean that you will not be exposed to maware, malicious code, and exploit kits. Hackers are increasingly compromising seemingly legitimate websites to redirect visitors to sites containing exploit kits that download malware and ransomware.
Two CBS-affiliated news websites were recently discovered to be hosting malicious adverts that redirect visitors to sites containing the Angler Exploit Kit. MSN has been found to host malvertising in the past, as has Yahoo. A study conducted by anti-virus company Symantec revealed that three quarters of websites contain security vulnerabilities that could potentially be exploited to infect visitors with malware.
High Profile Websites Compromised and Used to Deliver Ransomware to Visitors
This week, two new websites were found to have been compromised and were used to infect visitors with malware.
The celebrity gossip website PerezHilton.com may cause problems for celebrities, but this week it was also causing problems for its visitors. The site attracts millions of visitors, yet few would suspect that visiting the site placed them at risk of having their computer files locked with powerful file-encrypting ransomware.
However, that is exactly what has been happening. Hackers compromised an iframe on the site and inserted malicious code which redirected visitors to a website containing the Angler Exploit Kit. Angler probes visitors’ browsers for security vulnerabilities and exploits them; silently download a payload of malware. In this case, the Angler Exploit Kit was used to push Bedep malware, which in turn silently downloaded CryptXXX ransomware onto the victims’ devices.
A second malvertising campaign was also conducted that redirected visitors to a different website. The exploit kit used to infect redirected visitors was different, but the end result was the same. A malicious payload was downloaded onto their devices.
Another well-known website was also discovered to have been compromised this week. The website of the world renowned French film production company Pathé was discovered to have been compromised. Hackers had managed to embed malicious code in one of the webpages on the site. The code also redirected users to a site hosting the Angler Exploit Kit, which similarly was used to infect visitors with CryptXXX ransomware.
How to Reduce the Risk of Malware Infections from Websites
Exploit kits take advantage of security vulnerabilities in browsers. To reduce the risk of malware infections from websites it is essential that browsers are kept up to date. That includes all browser plugins. If no security vulnerabilities exist, there would be nothing for exploit kits to exploit.
However, zero-day vulnerabilities are emerging all the time and software manufacturers are not always quick to develop fixes. Adobe was alerted to a new zero-day vulnerability a few days ago, yet they only just released a fix. During that time, the vulnerability could have been exploited using exploit kits. Cybercriminal gangs are quick to incorporate new zero-day vulnerabilities into their exploit kits and do so faster than software companies can release fixes. Ensuring all updates are installed promptly is a great way to reduce the risk of malware infections from websites, but additional measures need to be taken.
If you really want to improve your – or your company’s – security posture and really reduce the risk of malware infections from websites, you should use a web filtering solution. This is particularly important for businesses to ensure that employees do not inadvertently compromise the network. It can be difficult to ensure that all devices used to connect to the network are kept 100% up to date, 100% of the time.
A web filtering solution can be configured to block malvertising, blacklists can be used to prevent compromised websites from being accessed, and malware downloads can be prevented. Along with good patch management practices, it is possible to effectively reduce the risk of malware infections from websites.
This week, patch Tuesday saw updates issued to address actively exploited security vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer, along with a swathe of fixes for a number of other critical Microsoft security vulnerabilities. In total, Microsoft issued fixes for 51 vulnerabilities this week spread across 16 security bulletins, half of which were rated as important, the other eight being rated as critical.
The updates tackle vulnerabilities in Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer, Windows, the Microsoft .NET Framework, and MS Office; however, it is the browser fixes that are the most important. These include actively exploited security vulnerabilities that can be used to compromise computers if users visit websites containing exploit kits.
Security update MS16-051 tackles the CVE-2016-0189 zero-day vulnerability in Internet Explorer, which if exploited, would allow an attacker to gain the same level of privileges as the current user. The flaw could be used to take control of the entire system. The exploit could be used to install new programs on the device, create new accounts, or modify or delete data. The vulnerability modifies the functioning of JScript and VBScript, changing how they handle objects in the computer’s memory.
The IE security vulnerability was brought to the attention of Microsoft by researchers at Symantec, who had discovered an active exploit that was being used alongside spear-phishing attacks in South Korea. Users were being directed to a website containing an exploit kit that had been updated with the IE security vulnerability.
The MS16-052 security update tackles a vulnerability in Microsoft Edge which similarly changes how objects in the memory are handled. These two updates should be prioritized by sysadmins, although all of the updates should be installed as soon as possible. Even the important updates could potentially be exploited and used to gain control of unpatched computers.
Bulletin MS16-054 is also a priority update to patch critical vulnerabilities in Adobe Flash. Since Flash is embedded in both Edge and IE, Microsoft has started issuing updates to address Adobe Flash vulnerabilities. While these security flaws are not believed to have been exploited in the wild, it will not be long before they are included in exploit kits.
Microsoft may have fixed its actively exploited security vulnerabilities, but despite Adobe issuing patches for Acrobat, ColdFusion, and Reader on Tuesday, Flash remains vulnerable to attack. Adobe has yet to issue a patch for an actively exploited Flash security vulnerability (CVE-2016-4117) that affects version 184.108.40.206 and all earlier versions of the platform. This vulnerability has been included in exploit kits and can be used to take control of devices. In total, Adobe fixed 92 separate vulnerabilities in its Tuesday update.
Between Microsoft and Adobe, 143 vulnerabilities have been addressed this week. With hackers quick to add the vulnerabilities to website exploit kits, it is essential that patches are installed rapidly. These actively exploited security vulnerabilities also highlight the importance of using a web filtering solution to prevent users from visiting compromised websites where the vulnerabilities can be exploited.
Finding a web security service for MSPs can be a time consuming process. There are a number of solutions that allow MSPs to keep their clients protected from malware and reduce the risk from internal and external threats, yet many are far from ideal for use by MSPs.
The ideal web security service for MSPs must have a relatively low cost of ownership. Clients may be more than willing to implement a web security service to deal with the growing range of web-borne threats, but the cost of implementation is a key factor.
Many solutions offer all the necessary benefits for the client, but are not practical for use by MSPs. The time taken to install web security solutions and to configure them for each client can reduce profitability. The best web security service for MSPs need to be easy to install and maintain, and have a low management overhead.
Low cost solutions that are quick to install and easy to maintain allow MSPs to easily incorporate into existing packages to create a more comprehensive Internet security service. This can increase the value provided to clients, boost client revenue, and help MSPs to win more business and differentiate their company in the marketplace.
The ideal web security service for MSPs is available as a white label. This allows the service to be easily incorporated into existing packages. White labeling allows MSPS to strengthen their own brand image rather than promoting someone else’s.
Many providers of a web security service for MSPs fall down on customer support. If any issues are experienced, it is essential that an MSP can provide rapid solutions. Industry-leading technical support is essential.
WebTitan Cloud – A Web Security Service for MSPs That Ticks All the Right Boxes
WebTitan Cloud is an enterprise-class web filtering solution for MSPs that can be used to enforce clients’ acceptable use policies and control the content that can be accessed via their wired and wireless networks.
Our DNS-based web filtering solution allows organizations to prevent phishing, stop malware downloads, protect against ransomware and botnet infections, and block spyware and adware. Controls prevent the bypassing of the content filter by blocking anonymizer services. Encrypted web traffic is also inspected.
Implementation could not be any easier. There is no need for any hardware purchases or software downloads. All that is required is a change to the DNS to point to our servers and the Internet can be filtered in under 2 minutes.
Configuring each client to incorporate their AUPs is also a quick and easy process requiring no technical expertise. Highly granular controls ensure AUPs can be quickly and easily applied. There is no need to use on premise support teams. Everything can be monitored via the control panel from any Internet browser. There is no hardware or software to maintain and no patches to apply, reducing management overhead considerably. Cloud keys can be supplied to allow guests to bypass organization-wide content control settings, with time-limits applied to prevent abuse.
Reporting is effortless. A full suite of pre-defined reports can be generated automatically and scheduled for each client to allow Internet access to be carefully monitored.
We also offer fully white-labeled solutions for MSPs allowing logos, branding, and corporate color schemes to be easily incorporated. We are also more than happy to allow WebTitan Cloud to be hosted within an MSPs infrastructure.
To find out more about why WebTitan Cloud is a game changing web security service for MSPs contact our sales team today!
Over the past two weeks there have been three worrying instances of the Angler exploit kit being used to infect website visitors with malware and ransomware. Cybercriminals are increasingly using exploit kits to deliver their malicious payloads and all organizations need to be aware of the risk.
Why AUPs May Not Be Sufficient to Keep Networks Secure
Many companies advise employees of the types of websites that can be accessed via work networks and which are forbidden. Typically, employees are banned from visiting pornographic websites, using the Internet for the sharing of copyright-protected material, installing shareware or other unauthorized software, and using unauthorized web applications and gaming sites.
Employees are provided with a document which they are required to read and sign. They are informed of the actions that will be taken for breaching the rules: verbal and written warnings for example, and in some cases, instant dismissal. These AUPs are usually effective and employees do heed the warnings if they value their jobs.
If an employee breaches the AUPs and accesses pornography for instance, action can be taken against that individual. It is probable that no harm will have been caused and the matter can be dealt with by HR.
However, if an employee breaches AUPs and visits a website that has been compromised with malware or installs shareware that includes malicious files, taking action against the employee will not undo the damage caused.
To better protect networks, AUPs should be enforced with a software solution. By implementing a web filtering solution, HR departments can ensure that inappropriate website content is not accessed, while IT departments can be prevented from having to deal with malware infections.
Even if AUPs are followed to the letter, malware may still be downloaded onto the network. The risk has recently been highlighted by two security incidents discovered in the past two weeks.
Legitimate Websites Compromised with Angler Exploit Kit
Last week, news emerged that a toy manufacturer’s website had been compromised and was being used to infect visitors with malware. The website had been loaded with the Angler exploit kit and was being used to silently infect visitors’ devices with ransomware.
An exploit kit is a malicious toolkit used by hackers to probe for security vulnerabilities in website visitors’ browsers. A visitor to a website containing an exploit kit – BlackHole, Magnitude, Nuclear, Styx, or Angler for example – will have their browser checked for out of date plugins such as Adobe Reader, Silverlight, Flash, or Java. If the plugins are not up to date, security vulnerabilities can be exploited to download a payload of malware. These attacks are silent and the website visitor will be unaware that their machine has been compromised.
This week, two more websites were discovered to have been hijacked and were being used to direct visitors to the Angler exploit kit. These websites were much more likely to be visited by company employees. They were the sites of two CBS-affiliated TV stations: KMOV in St. Louis and WBTV in Charlotte, North Carolina.
These news websites would be unlikely to be banned in AUPs, and few organizations would see the risk of their employees visiting these websites.
News Websites Contained Malvertising Directing Users to the Angler Exploit Kit
While the toy manufacturer’s website was directly infecting web visitors, in the case of KMOV and WBTV the attackers were using a common technique called malvertising. The websites had not been loaded with the Angler exploit kit, instead the attacks were taking place via third party adverts that were being served on the sites.
The sites contain adblocks which were used to serve advertisements via the Taggify network – a legitimate advertising network. However, a rogue advertiser had got around the controls put in place by Taggify and malicious adverts were being served.
Reduce Risk of Attack with a Web Filtering Solution
These three recent cases are just the tip of the iceberg. Criminals are hijacking all manner of websites and using them to host exploit kits. Legitimate websites serving third party adverts are also being targeted with malvertising.
Enforcing AUPs with a web filtering solution can help to prevent end users from visiting websites that have been compromised with malware. A web filter – such as WebTitan – can also be used to block third party advertisements from being displayed.
Unfortunately for enterprises, it is not possible to install patches as soon as they are released. Many patches require reboots, and that is not practical. The number of patches being released to plug security holes is considerable, and it takes time to patch all devices that connect to a network. Good patch management policies can reduce the likelihood of a successful attack, but they cannot prevent all attacks from taking place. If a web filtering solution is used that can block malvertising and websites known to contain malware, end users and networks will be better protected.
There are some very good reasons why you should block file sharing websites. These websites are primarily used to share pirated software, music, films, and TV shows. It would be unlikely for the owner of the copyright to take action against an employer for failing to prevent the illegal sharing of copyrighted material, but this is an unnecessary legal risk.
However, the main risk from using these websites comes from malware. Research conducted by IDC in 2013 showed that out of 533 tests of websites and peer-2-peer file sharing networks, the downloading of pirated software resulted in spyware and tracking cookies being downloaded to users’ computers 78% of the time. More worryingly, Trojans were downloaded with pirated software 36% of the time.
A survey conducted on IT managers and CIOs at the time indicated that malware was installed 15% of the time with the software. IDC determined that overall there was a one in three chance of infecting a machine with malware by using pirated software.
Even visiting torrent sites can be harmful. This week Malwarebytes reported that visitors to The Pirate Bay were served malicious adverts. An advertiser used a pop-under to silently redirect users to a malicious site containing the Magnitude exploit kit which was used to downloaded Cerber ransomware onto users’ devices.
A study conducted by UC San Diego involved testing pirated software downloads using VirusTotal. VirusTotal checks files against the databases of 47 different anti-virus engines. The research team determined that 50% of pirated files were infected with malware.
Dealing with malware from pirated software was determined to take around 1.5 billion hours per year. For businesses the cost can be considerable. IDC calculated the cost to enterprises to be around $114 billion in 2013 alone. And that was just for the clean-up. The cost of data breaches caused by illegal software installations was estimated to be in the order of $350 billion.
Time to Block File Sharing Websites?
Organizations can monitor devices and check for unauthorized software installations on individual devices; however, by the time a software installation has been discovered, malware is likely to already have been installed. A recent report by Verizon suggests that on average, hackers are able to exfiltrate data within 28 minutes of gaining access to a system.
One of the easiest ways to manage risk is to block file sharing websites such as P2P and torrent sites. A web filter can be easily configured to block file sharing websites and prevent them from being accessed. Many web filters can also be configured to block specific file types from being downloaded, such as keygens and other executables.
By blocking file sharing websites organizations can ensure that copyright-violating activities are prevented and malware risk is effectively managed. Furthermore, web filters can be used to block web-borne threats such as phishing websites, compromised webpages, spam and botnets, adware, malware, ransomware, and anonymizers.
The failure to block file sharing websites could turn out to be costly. It is far better to block potentially dangerous websites and online activities than to have to cover the cost of removing malware infections and dealing with data breaches.
One cybercriminal gang has resorted to a mafia-style protection racket to obtain money, although it would appear that businesses are being sent empty DDoS threats. While many companies have sent money to the criminal gang, which claims to be the Armada Collective, there is no evidence to suggest that the gang is following through on its threat of conducting a largescale Distributed Denial of Service attacks.
Empty DDoS Threats Still Proving Lucrative for Attackers
The gang has been sending emails to businesses threatening them with a powerful DDoS attack if they do not send protection money to the gang. The demands appear to range from 10 to 50 Bitcoin and over 100 organizations have given in to the attackers demands according to DDoS mitigation vendor CloudFlare. So far the gang has gathered around $100,000 in payments, yet no DDoS attacks have been conducted.
Armada Collective is the name of a hacking group already known to conduct massive DDoS attacks. The emails claim that the gang is able to deliver a DDoS attack in excess of 1 Tbps per second. The group also claims to be able to bypass security controls set up to protect against DDoS attacks. In case recipients of the email are in any doubt as to who the attackers are and what they are capable of, they are advised to conduct a search on Google. Armada Collective has been known to conduct DDoS attacks up to 500 Gbps.
Are the Latest Emails from a Copycat Group?
According to CloudFlare, it may not be a case of the hackers not having the capability to pull off a large scale DDoS attack on companies that do not pay, rather the attackers may not be able to tell who has paid and who has not. The emails are reusing Bitcoin addresses so there is no way of confirming which companies have paid. Emails are also being sent containing the same text and payment demands, regardless of the size of the organization.
However, the empty DDoS threats or not, many companies are unprepared to take the risk and have paid between $4,500 and $23,000 to stop the attacks.
CloudFlare suspects that the extortionists are not who they claim to be. The Armada Collective has not been conducting attacks for some time. CloudFlare researchers believe that the group has been operating under a different name – DD4BC. However, suspected members of that group have been arrested as part of Operation Pleiades last year – an International effort to bring down hacking groups that have been conducting DDoS attacks.
The group behind this campaign may well be imposters, although many hackers send out threats of DDoS attacks along with demands for payment. Some of those attackers are more than willing to follow through on the threats and have the capability to launch attacks.
It is never a good idea to give into attackers’ demands, but it is important to ensure that protections have been put in place to resist DDoS attacks and to seek advice before taking any action if an email demand is received.
Organizations are investing in technology to ensure the perimeter defense are not breached; however, it is also important to address the risk of insider data breaches. According to a recent report from Forrester, internal incidents were responsible for more than half of data breaches suffered by firms. Cybercriminals have stepped up their efforts and are attacking organizations with increased vigor, but the report suggests more than half of data breaches are caused by employee errors, oversights, and negligence.
Employees are under increasing pressure to get more work completed in less time. This can easily lead to errors being made or shortcuts being taken. Employees may be security minded most of the time, but it is all too easy for sloppy data security practices to creep in. Even with the most robust perimeter security defenses in place, simple mistakes can lead to disaster.
Email Borne Attacks Are Still A Major Risk
During the past 12 months the volume of spam email has fallen considerably. This is partly due to law enforcement taking down major botnets and the increasing use of efficient spam filters. Even with the reduced volume the threat from spam email is considerable. The Forrester report indicates spam email volume has dropped from almost 89% of all emails in 2014 to 68% of emails in 2015. However, over 91% of all spam emails contain a malicious link and 2.34% contain malicious email attachments.
Cybersecurity awareness training has helped to mitigate the risk of insider breaches to some degree but they are still occurring. Most employees now know not to open email attachments from people they do not know, but what about from people they do know?
There has been an increase in business email compromise attacks in recent months. These attacks involve the sending of spam and phishing emails from within an organization. These emails are more likely to result in malicious email attachments being opened and links being clicked than emails from strangers. All emails should be treated as suspicious and should be carefully checked, not only those from outside an organization.
Employees are aware never to run an executable file that has been sent via email and to be wary of opening zip files from strangers. The Forrester report suggests that attackers are increasingly using standard office files to infect their targets. Microsoft Office files are used in 44.7% of attacks.
Employees who install unauthorized software are also placing their companies at risk. The use of shadow IT is behind many data breaches. Cybercriminals are exploiting vulnerabilities in the software installed by end users. Many of these programs contain serious vulnerabilities.
How to Address the Risk of Insider Data Breaches
Tacking the threat from within is more complicated that securing the defense perimeter as it is far harder to prevent employees from making simple mistakes. Organizations must take steps to reduce the likelihood of mistakes being made, while also ensuring that when employees do make data security snafus do not prove to be catastrophic.
Some of the ways organizations can address the risk of insider data breaches include:
Conduct background checks before hiring new staff
Ensuring access to systems is terminated before staff are
Limiting network privileges
Block the copying of critical data onto portable devices
Provide all new staff with data security training
Regularly conducting refresher training sessions
Conducting quarterly cybersecurity fire-drills to ensure training is not forgotten.
Sending regular email bulletins to keep cybersecurity awareness training fresh in the mind
Sending dummy phishing emails to staff to test the effectiveness of training
Scanning for shadow IT installed on user devices
Ensuring bank transfer requests are checked by two individuals before being authorized
Using a web filtering service to block phishing websites and limiting access to potentially risky websites
Configuring a web filter to block the downloading of risky file types
It may not be possible to eliminate the risk of insider data breaches, but it is possible to effectively mitigate risk.
The healthcare industry has had a hard time in recent months; however, it is far from the only industry being targeted by hackers. Manufacturing company cyberattacks are on the increase and the industry is now second only to healthcare according to a new report from IBM X-Force Research. The manufacturing industry has replaced the financial sector as hackers attempt to gain access to intellectual property. Intellectual property can be sold for big bucks on the black market.
$400 Billion Worth of Intellectual Property Is Stolen from U.S. Companies Every Year
According to figures from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, each year over $400 billion worth of intellectual property is stolen from the United States and sold overseas. Many of the attacks are conducted by nation-state backed hacking groups, although a number of players have now got in on the act due to the value of data and the relative ease of breaking through manufacturing company cybersecurity defenses.
According to the IBM’s 2016 Cyber Security Intelligence Index, manufacturers in the automotive sector were most frequently targeted. Chemical companies were the second most likely to be attacked. 30% of manufacturing company cyberattacks took place on automotive manufacturers.
Not only are the potential rewards for successful manufacturing company cyberattacks high, attacks are relatively easy to pull off. A successful attack on a company in the financial sector may be rewarding, but the defenses put in place to keep hackers at bay are usually far more robust than in less well regulated industries such as manufacturing. The manufacturing industry has been relatively slow to improve cybersecurity defenses.
Organizations in the healthcare industry are required to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act or HIPAA for short. HIPAA sets a number of minimum standards which must be met by all healthcare organizations. Administrative, technical, and physical safeguards must be implemented to keep patient data protected. The legislation has forced healthcare companies to improve their cybersecurity defenses.
Similarly, legislation has been introduced that requires organizations in the financial services industry to improve protections to keep data secure. Organizations must comply with the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and implement Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards. With no equivalent legislation covering the manufacturing industry, companies have not been forced to improve their cybersecurity defenses. While many organizations have implemented robust multi-layered security defenses, data security standards are higher in the healthcare and financial services verticals.
Many Manufacturing Company Cyberattacks Target Employees
With the number of manufacturing company cyberattacks increasing, cybersecurity defenses need to be improved. Many of the attacks target end users. Phishing and spear phishing emails can be a highly effective way of getting past security defenses. Employees are seen to be the weakest link in the security chain.
IBM X-Force senior threat researcher John Kuhn pointed out that servers are being targeted by hackers using phishing and spear phishing schemes. If employees can be lured onto malicious websites, vulnerabilities can be exploited and malware downloaded onto computers. From there it is a small hop to network servers.
Providing security training to staff is essential to reduce the risk of phishing attacks being successful. However, training alone is not sufficient to prevent all attacks. Software solutions should also be used to make it harder for end users to inadvertently install malware. A web filter should be implemented to prevent end users from downloading malicious software and visiting compromised websites. Web filtering can be a highly effective way of preventing attacks that target employees.
It is also essential to conduct comprehensive risk assessments to identify security vulnerabilities. All systems need to be assessed regularly. Any vulnerabilities identified need to be promptly addressed.
Two new vulnerabilities in QuickTime for Windows have recently been discovered, but a patch to address the flaws will not be issued by Apple. Apple has taken the decision to depreciate QuickTime for Windows and has advised all Windows users to uninstall the software to prevent vulnerabilities from being exploited. Apple intends to keep supporting the OSX version.
The latest vulnerabilities in QuickTime for Windows (named ZDI-16-241 and ZDI-16-242) are both heap corruption remote code execution vulnerabilities, both of which allow an attacker to write data outside of an allocated heap buffer. The vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely, although user interaction is required. In order for an attacker to exploit these vulnerabilities the target would be required to open a malicious file or visit a malicious website.
One of the vulnerabilities affects the moov atom (ZDI-16-241) while the other (ZDI-16-242) involves a flaw with atom processing. Both could allow data to be written outside of an allocated heap buffer by providing an invalid index. This would allow code to be executed in the context of Windows QuickTime player.
Latest Vulnerabilities in QuickTime for Windows Require Uninstallation of the Software
The discovery of the new vulnerabilities in QuickTime for Windows spells the end of the software for Windows users. Apple, Trend Micro, and US-CERT have all advised Windows users to uninstall QuickTime ASAP in order to stay protected.
These two new vulnerabilities are unlikely to be the last to be discovered. Leaving the software installed will place users at risk of attack. Exploits for the new vulnerabilities are not believed to have been developed yet, and no active attacks are understood to have been conducted, but it is only a matter of time before the vulnerabilities are added to exploit kits.
Whenever a software developer takes the decision to stop supporting software it means users must find alternatives. IT departments should ensure that all Windows machines have QuickTime uninstalled as soon as possible.
Apple has decided to stop support for QuickTime for Windows as most media programs no longer use QuickTime to play common formats, while HTML 5 has rendered the browser add-on obsolete.
To uninstall QuickTime for Windows, conduct a search for the uninstaller – search for “uninstall QuickTime” – or remove the program via the Windows Control Panel. Apple advises users to save the registration key if using QuickTime 7 Pro, which can be found in the “Register” tab of the program (Click Edit > Preferences).
A recent investigation by cyber security company F-Secure has revealed that corporate network cybersecurity defenses are anything but secure. The company recently assessed the cybersecurity protections in place at a large number of companies and discovered thousands of security vulnerabilities that could all too easily be exploited by hackers.
Holes in Corporate Network Cybersecurity Defenses Could be Easily Plugged
The company discovered almost 85,000 vulnerabilities in corporate network cybersecurity defenses. 7% of the 100 most common flaws were severe according to National Vulnerability Database standards, and half of those vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely by hackers. In the majority of cases patches were available to address the vulnerabilities yet they had not yet been installed.
Numerous system misconfigurations were also discovered which could potentially be exploited by attackers. Simple administrative changes could address many of the vulnerabilities discovered by the researchers.
The top ten vulnerabilities discovered by F-Secure had a severity rating of low to moderate. While these vulnerabilities may not allow hackers to gain access to corporate networks, they indicate that the organizations in question do not have strong cybersecurity defenses. If these vulnerabilities were to be discovered by hackers, it could result in the company being probed and tested. In some cases, closer inspection would reveal exploitable weaknesses.
Previous research conducted by the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) suggests that in 85% of cases, targeted cyberattacks can be prevented by applying patches. However, F-Secure’s research indicates that patch management practices are substandard in many organizations. Even when patches are applied, all too often they are not applied to all systems and vulnerabilities are allowed to remain.
If patches are not applied to all systems and vulnerabilities are allowed to persist, it is only a matter of time before corporate network cybersecurity defenses are breached.
Internet Threats Now Reaching Critical Levels
An Internet security threat report issued by Symantec earlier this month shows that the threat to corporate networks is greater than ever before. Web-borne threats have increased substantially, while three quarters of websites were determined to contain vulnerabilities that could potentially be exploited by hackers.
Furthermore, the number of zero-day vulnerabilities doubled in 2015. As soon as a vulnerability is uncovered it is rapidly incorporated into exploit kits. Those exploit kits probe for these vulnerabilities and use them to download malware and ransomware.
The threat report also confirmed that ransomware attacks increased by 35% in 2015, while spear phishing attacks increased by 55%. Attacks on large organizations are to be expected, but the report showed that even small businesses are being attacked with increasing regularity.
Unless organizations make it harder for hackers to break through their defenses, the rise in successful cyberattacks is likely to continue.
Have you recently performed a complete risk assessment to check for security vulnerabilities?
Are you certain that all security holes in your company’s defenses have been plugged?
The dramatic rise in business email scams in the past 12 months has prompted the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to issue a new warning. Companies of all sizes are being targeted with business email compromise scams which relieve companies of tens of thousands if not hundreds of thousands or millions of dollars.
The FBI warns that scammers are now going to extraordinary lengths to fool company employees into making transfers of large sums of company funds into hacker’s accounts. These attacks are far from the random email spam campaigns typically associated with email scammers. Companies are extensively researched, individual targets are identified, and carefully crafted emails are sent. A variety of social engineering techniques are employed to convince an individual in the company to make a sizeable bank transfer to the attacker’s account.
There are two main variants of these business email scams. The first involves gaining access to the email account of the CEO or a senior executive in the company. This is usually achieved with a spear phishing campaign. This phase of the attack involves researching the company and identifying a target. That target is then sent a spear phishing email in order to gain access to their email login credentials.
Once access to an email account has been gained, emails are checked to determine the style of writing used by that individual – How they sign their emails, the terminology they use, and the level of familiarity they have with the second target: An individual that manages money or makes bank transfers for the company.
An email is then sent from the executive’s email account requesting a transfer be made. Account details are supplied with a reason for urgency, and an explanation of why the request is being made.
Since the emails come from a known source within the company, and the terminology and style of the email matches those typically received by the accounts department, the transfer is often made without being queried.
Another variation on the same theme does not require access to an email account. Instead a domain name is purchased that is virtually identical to that used by the target company, often with just two letters transposed. Typically, an L in the domain name is replaced with the numeral 1, or the letter O with a zero. Goog1e.com instead of google.com for example.
These business email scams are highly effective because they take advantage of employees’ reluctance to query requests from authority figures in their organization. The emails are also crafted so as not to arouse suspicion.
Business Email Scams Have Netted Criminals Over $2.3 Billion in Three Years
Over the past three years the FBI has received complaints about business email scams from over 79 countries, and from every state in the U.S. Recently attacks have spiked in Phoenix, with other U.S. cities also targeted. Between October 2013 and February 2016, the FBI has been informed of 17,642 victims of these attacks. Over $2.3 billion in losses have been reported.
However, recently the situation has become dire. There has been a 270% increase in business email scams since January 2015, and the amounts lost in each successful attack are substantial. FBI reports that in Arizona the typical transfers requested are between £$25,000 and $75,000. With such high rewards for criminals it is no surprise that so many attacks are being conducted.
The FBI has urged companies to exercise caution and to be on high alert for these business email scams. The advice provided is to be extremely wary of any email-only request for a wire transfer, even if it comes from within the company.
To prevent these attacks, accounts department staff should verify a transfer request with the individual by phone – never by email – and should check the email address of the sender carefully. Multi-level authentication of bank transfers should also be consider3ed to reduce the risk of a successful attack.
2015 may have been the year of the healthcare data breach, but 2016 is fast becoming the year of ransomware with new strains such as Samas ransomware appearing at an alarming rate. Recently the Federal Bureau of Investigation reached out to U.S. businesses, seeking help to deal with the latest Samas ransomware threat.
Samas Ransomware Being Used to Encrypt Networks
Samas ransomware – also known as Samsa, Samsam, and MSIL – is different from many strains of ransomware that were used by cybercriminals last year. The new ransomware strain is being used to attack businesses rather than consumers. Last year, criminals were sending out ransomware randomly via spam email.
Ransom demands of 0.5-1 Bitcoin were the norm, with consumers often willing to pay to recover their files, accounts, photographs, and other important data. However, businesses hold far more valuable data. If criminals are able to infect enterprise computers and encrypt important business files, higher ransom demands can be sent. In many cases those demands have been paid.
In order to obtain large ransoms, cybercriminals need to infect networks rather than single computers. If an end user downloads ransomware onto their computer, and that ransomware has the capability to spread laterally and infect other systems, enterprises are more likely to pay to unlock the encryption. Even when viable backups exist, the complexity of some of the ransomware now being used makes paying the ransom an easier and lower cost option. Since some ransomware is capable of deleting backup files, the restoration of data may simply not be an option. Samas ransomware has been reported to delete Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) data.
Access to Systems is Gained by Cybercriminals Weeks Before Samas Ransomware is Deployed
The mode of action of Samas ransomware is different from other families of malicious file-encrypting software such as Locky, CryptoWall, and Cryptolocker.
Attackers are exploiting a vulnerability in the JBoss enterprise application platform to compromise an external web server. This is achieved by using a security program called JexBoss. Once access to a server has been gained, attackers mask communications using a Python based SOCKS proxy. A variety of software tools are then used to gain access to login credentials, and they in turn are used to compromise other systems and devices within an organization’s infrastructure. Several different tactics are then used to deploy Samas ransomware on numerous machines.
Several analyses of infected systems were conducted by Dell SecureWorks, which revealed attackers had compromised systems several weeks or months before the ransomware was actually deployed. Had the system compromise been detected earlier, the ransomware infections could have been avoided. Unfortunately, the initial compromise is difficult to detect, and anti-virus products are slow to detect new threats such as Samas ransomware.
The FBI issued warnings last year over the rise in popularity of Bitcoin ransomware, and a few days ago the law enforcement agency reached out to companies requesting assistance to help it tackle the threat from the latest ransomware variants, just days before the malicious software was used on MedStar Health System.
Over the last few weeks a number of healthcare institutions have reported being attacked with ransomware, and there is no telling how many companies have had corporate and customer data encrypted by attackers. Many do not like to advertise the fact they have been attacked.
While attacks on individuals only result in relatively small ransoms being paid, the same cannot be said for companies. Ransom demands of tens of thousands of dollars are issued, and many companies feel they have little alternative but to pay the ransom demand in order to recover their data.
Unfortunately for enterprises, the threat from Bitcoin ransomware is unlikely to go away any time soon. More cybercriminals are getting in on the act and attacks will continue as long as they prove to be profitable. The bad news is Bitcoin ransomware is very effective. Worse still, attacks require little technical skill and cost very little to pull off.
Bitcoin Ransomware Kits Mean Little Skill is Required to Pull Off a Successful Attack
According to a report in the Italian newspaper La Stampa, the cost of conducting a ransomware attack can be shockingly low and requires little in the way of skill. One reporter at the newspaper set out to discover just how easy it is to buy ransomware and conduct an attack. After visiting underground forums on the darknet, the researcher found a board where ransomware-as-a-service was being offered.
One poster on a Russian forum was not only offering ransomware for sale, but made it exceptionally easy for would-be cybercriminals to conduct campaigns. The purchaser would be supplied with the ransomware, distribution tools to send out the malicious file-encrypting software via email and advertising networks, and this Bitcoin ransomware service could be bought for as little as $100.
According to the article, the purchaser would be allowed to keep 85% of the ransoms that were collected, with the remaining 15% going to the seller of the service. There appears to be no shortage of takers. The hacker behind this campaign allegedly has between 300 and 400 active customers. This is only one seller. There are many more offering such a service. The campaigns may not be particularly sophisticated, but the reality is that they don’t actually need to be.
Some sellers even offer Bitcoin ransomware kits where purchasers only need to enter in their Bitcoin address for the payment of the ransom, the amount they wish to charge their victims for the security keys, and they can download everything they need, including instructions on how to run the campaign. These services are not being sold for big bucks. The sellers know they can earn considerable sums by taking a cut of the ransoms that are paid.
The standard rates being charged by attackers to supply security keys for single computer infections is between 0.5 and 1 Bitcoin – approximately $200-$425. All that is required for an attacker to make a profit is one or two victims to install the Bitcoin ransomware and pay for a security key. According to data released by Tripwire, half of American ransomware victims have ended up paying the ransom demand to recover their data.
Until law enforcement efforts to track down attackers and shut down underground forums improve, and victims stop paying ransoms, the attacks are likely to continue to increase.
What businesses need to do is to make sure they are better protected to prevent Bitcoin ransomware from being installed and to ensure they have viable backups in case ransomware does get installed on their networks.
There are a number of ways for managed service providers to increase cash flow and boost profits. Efficiency can be improved, staff productivity can be increased, better margins achieved, and new in-house products could be developed. Unfortunately, all of these are easier said than done.
The main ways to increase profits by a significant amount is to attract new customers and increase the amount each existing client is spending.
If only there was a secret ingredient that MSPs are missing that could help them help to win more business and get each client to spend more! The good news is that for many MSPs, there is such a product.
Any MSP that has yet to include a web filtering service into their product portfolio could be missing out on substantial profits.
Web Filtering – An Easy Way for MSPs to Increase Profits
Filtering the Internet is now essential for many enterprises. In certain Industries it is mandatory for companies to filter the Internet. They need to ensure sensitive data are protected and risk is effectively managed. Networks must be protected from attacks by hackers and with an increasing number of web-borne threats, Internet usage policies alone are not sufficient to keep organizations protected. Those policies need to be enforced and a web filter is the natural choice.
In some industries, education for example, it is mandatory for the Internet to be filtered. Minors must be prevented from accessing obscene website content or other material that could be harmful. Even when it is not mandatory to filter the Internet it is often desirable. Hotels, restaurants, transport networks, airports, cafes, and coffee shops are choosing to implement controls to ensure all users enjoy a safe browsing experience.
In business, productivity losses from Internet abuse can be considerable. If every employee wasted an hour each day on personal Internet use, the losses to a medium-sized company would be substantial. Some studies suggest even more time is wasted by employees each day on non-work related Internet activities.
Failure to filter the Internet can prove costly in many ways. For example, the accessing of adult content in the workplace can lead to the development of a hostile working environment, which affects morale, productivity, and can cause all manner of HR headaches. The use of torrent sites and the downloading of pirated films, music, TV shows, and software can cause organizations legal headaches as well as placing pressure on bandwidth.
Many websites are unsafe and accessing those sites places organizations at a greater risk of a malware infection. A single compromised computer can cause an incredible amount of damage. The latest ransomware attack on Medstar Health is a good example. A computer virus was inadvertently downloaded which resulted in the shutdown of the health system’s email for its entire workforce, as well as its electronic medical record system.
Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center was attacked with ransomware and had to pay $17,000 to obtain security keys to unlock its data. It is not only healthcare organizations that are having to deal with ransomware. U.S Police Departments have been forced to pay attackers after their computers have been locked by file-encrypting software, and many organizations have fallen victim to ransomware, keyloggers, viruses, and other malicious software. These infections are a drain on productivity and take a considerable amount of time and resources to fix.
A web filtering solution can protect against web-borne threats, can be used to tackle productivity losses, and prevent illegal or unsuitable website content from being accessed. Web filtering is now less of an option for many businesses and more of a requirement. MSPs offering such a service can fine it is an easy sell and a great way to boost profits.
What to Look for in a Web Filtering Product
In order for a third-party product to be included in an MSPs existing portfolio it should have a number of features. MSPs therefore need to find a web filtering product that:
Has generous margins
Is easy for sales teams to sell to clients
Has a low management overhead
Is easy to install
Appeals to a wide range of clients
Can be easily incorporated into existing product offerings
Can be easily incorporated into back-office systems
There is a product that ticks all of these boxes, and that is WebTitan Cloud.
WebTitan Cloud and WebTitan Cloud for WiFi – Ideal Web Filtering Solutions for MSPs
WebTitan Cloud is a 100% cloud-based DNS filtering solution that has been designed to be easy to implement, maintain, manage, and sell to clients. WebTitan Cloud a no-brainer for many organizations, allowing thousands of dollars to be saved.
WebTitan Cloud can help organizations increase productivity of the workforce, improve security posture to prevent malware infections, and highly competitive pricing means considerable savings can be made by organizations looking to switch web filtering providers.
WebTitan can be implemented without any effect on Internet speed, there is no need for any additional hardware, no software downloads are required. Our product is easy to use and management is straightforward and not labor-intensive.
Key Features and Benefits of WebTitan Cloud that will Appeal to MSPs
WebTitan Cloud and WebTitan Cloud for WiFi have been developed to be appealing to MSPs and their clients. To make it as easy as possible for our web filtering solutions to be incorporated into existing client packages and allow MSPs to boost profits, we offer the following:
White labelling – Allows MSPs to add their own branding and color schemes.
Hosting choices – We can host on our servers, provide private cloud hosting, or you can run our solution within your own infrastructure.
Generous margins for MSPsand highly competitive pricing – An easy way to boost profits.
Usage-based Monthly billing – Makes WebTitan Cloud more affordable for clients.
Flexible pricing – Our product can easily be included in your pricing models.
Multi-tenanted solution – Advanced customer management features makes it easy to add new clients.
API-Driven – Easy integration into back-end billing and reporting systems.
Highly scalable – Our web filtering solution is suitable for businesses of all sizes.
Excellent Support – Industry leading customer service and technical support. If you have a problem, it will be rapidly resolved.
To find out more about how easy it is to incorporate WebTitan Cloud into your existing portfolio and boost profits contact our sales team today.
Web-borne attacks on enterprises are increasing, although it is important not to forget to protect against email attacks, as shown by a recent campaign using the Olympic Vision keylogger.
Olympic Vision Keylogger Used in Recent Business Email Compromise Attacks
The attackers behind the latest campaign are using the Olympic Vision keylogger to gain access to business email accounts. Trend Micro discovered the latest campaign and was able to trace the attacks and link them to two Nigerian cybercriminals. Trend Micro determined that the current campaign has been conducted in 18 different countries including the United States.
Business email accounts contain a wealth of data, which in the wrong hands, could result in considerable damage being caused to an enterprise. However, it is not only data stored in the email accounts that hackers want to obtain. The cybercriminal gang behind the latest attacks have a different purpose. Attacks are being conducted to gain access to business email accounts to use them to send emails to account department employees instructing them to make bank transfers to the attackers’ accounts. Large transfers are often made following a business email compromise (BEC) attack.
If hackers can gain access to the email account of a senior executive, they can use that account to send messages to members of staff in the accounts or billing departments requesting transfers be made to their bank accounts. BEC is a highly effective attack strategy. If an email is sent from a CEO to the accounts department requesting an urgent transfer be made, many employees would not think twice before making the transfer as instructed.
This social engineering technique takes advantage of the fact that many employees would not question a direct request from a CEO or senior account executive. A transfer is made and the attacker receives the funds, withdraws the money, and closes the account. This often occurs before any red flags are raised, even when the transfer is for tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Sophisticated Attacks Being Conducted Using Unsophisticated Malware
The Olympic Vision keylogger is not a sophisticated malware. Once installed on a device it will steal information including the computer name, Windows product keys, keystrokes, network information, clipboard text, and data saved in browsers, messaging clients, FTP clients, and email clients. It is also capable of taking screenshots.
Those data are then encrypted and are sent via email, FTP, or other means to the attacker. The Olympic Vision keylogger is capable of displaying fake error messages, and can disable computer functions to evade detection – Task Manager for example can be blocked as can registry editing tools. The Olympic Vision keylogger is capable of terminating programs that may detect it, and uses anti-emulation to prevent it running in a sandbox.
With the information collected, attackers are not only able to gain access to business email accounts, they can search for other computers, study workflows, and gather intelligence. The intel is used to construct convincing emails and ensure they are sent to individuals in the account department authorized to make bank transfers.
The attacks can be incredibly lucrative. The FBI reported recently that BEC attacks have been used by cybercriminals to obtain around $800 million dollars from businesses in the past year.
How to Protect Against BEC Attacks
There are a number of strategies that can be used to prevent BEC attacks from taking place. Software solutions can be used to prevent malware such as the Olympic Vision keylogger from being installed. SpamTitan spam filtering software can be used to block emails containing malicious attachments to prevent them from being sent to end users. If malicious emails are blocked, this places less reliance on end users not to open infected email attachments. SpamTitan can also block phishing emails, which are also used to gain access to login credentials via links to malicious websites.
Staff training is also essential. End users should receive basic security training and be advised of best practices to adopt to reduce risk. With software solutions and a culture of security awareness, the majority of attacks can be prevented.
However, it is also essential to introduce policies and procedures to prevent fraudulent bank transfers being made. A wise precaution is to introduce policies that require bank transfer requests to be authorized by a supervisor. This additional control can help to ensure fraudulent transfer requests are identified.
Any atypical request for a transfer from a senior account executive, especially those that require large sums to be transferred to accounts not previously used by the company, should be verified with the person who made the request prior to the transfer being made.
Cybercriminals are moving away from email attacks and are concentrating on web-based exploits to deliver malware. Email remains a major source of malware, but web-based attacks are now much more prevalent.
Web-Based Exploits Increasingly Used to Deliver Malware
A recent report from Palo Alto Networks showed that out of just over 68,000 malware samples collected, 25% were delivered via email, whereas 68% were delivered during web-browsing. Those figures were for known malware. When it comes to undetected samples, the figures for web-browsing rose to 90% compared to just 2% delivered via email. Undetected malware samples are those which are not detected by traditional anti-malware and anti-virus solutions.
It is easy to see why web-based exploits are being favored by cybercriminals. It takes much longer for web-based exploits to be detected by anti-virus software than email-based attacks. Palo Alto reports that it takes four times as long to detect web-based exploits as it does email-based attacks. Attackers are also able to tweak web-based malware in real-time. Email-based malware needs to be sent out and changes can only be made for each new campaign.
In the case of email-based malware attacks, the malicious software is relatively easy to detect by AV companies. They are able to give each malware sample a signature, which makes it much easier to block attacks. In the case of web-based malware this is a much harder task. The malware can be tweaked in real-time, making it harder for AV companies to capture and create a signature. A web server on which malware is hosted can be configured to re-code the malware automatically and generate many thousands of unique malware. Capturing and adding a signature to each simple takes too long.
There are many methods that can be employed to reduce the risk of malware infections from web browsing, although one of the easiest preventative steps to take is to use a web filtering solution such as WebTitan. WebTitan allows organizations to carefully control the websites that can be accessed by end users.
Palo Alto reported that HTTP proxies were frequently used in malware delivery. The blocking of HTTP proxies and web anonymizers can help to improve security posture and reduce the risk of malware downloads. P2P networks are also commonly used to deliver malware, and these can also be easily blocked with WebTitan web filtering solutions.
Social media websites are a common source of malware infections. A recent survey conducted by the Ponemon Institute revealed that 18% of respondents had experienced a malware attack via social media websites. Blocking access to social media networks, or blocking the file-transfer function of Facebook for example, can help to reduce the risk of malware downloads.
The threat landscape is constantly changing; however, by carefully controlling the actions that can be performed by end users with a web filter, the risk of malware infections can be greatly reduced.
A recent study conducted by the Ponemon Institute on behalf of IBM investigated web application security visibility. The report revealed for the majority of organizations there is none. When it comes to application security, many companies are in the dark and either do not test the apps they use, or do not address the vulnerabilities they discover when they do.
640 application development and security professionals were asked questions about application security and the steps being taken to secure apps. The study also aimed to get an answer to the question, how much do organizations know about the security of the applications they are using on a day to day basis?
The results of the survey are worrying. More than a third of companies (35%) perform no application security testing. Consequently, they are unaware if the apps they use have security vulnerabilities. Worse still, 69% of respondents said they were not aware of all of the apps and databases that were in use in their organization.
Application Security Visibility Needs to be Improved
The study also revealed that more than two thirds (67%) of organizations do not have overall visibility into the state of application security in their respective companies. Out of the organizations that do perform application security testing, more than half do not take steps to address security vulnerabilities they discover. 34% of respondents said urgent security vulnerabilities are not being fixed and 43% said web application security was not a priority in their organization.
When asked why thorough testing of applications does not take place, 56% of respondents said it was due to time constraints and organizational pressure to release applications quickly. 55% said that their organization’s developers are too busy to work on application security issues and 70% said they believed their organization invested too little in securing web applications and that insufficient resources were allocated to the task.
Developers do not feel that it is their job to ensure applications are secure, and that this task should be conducted by information security professionals employed by their organizations. Another issue is web application security vulnerabilities take a long time to resolve. When asked how long, 38% said that each vulnerability takes around 20 hours to address.
There is, unfortunately, not enough time to make applications secure. However, there is no shortage of attackers willing to take advantage of security vulnerabilities that remain in web applications. Unless the security of web applications is improved, those vulnerabilities could well be exploited.
Enterprise social media usage policies have only been introduced by 54% of organizations according to a recent social media research study conducted by Osterman Research.
Social media use in the workplace has grown significantly in recent years, both personal use of social media sites as well as the use of the platforms for business purposes. However, just over half of enterprises have implemented policies that limit or restrict use of the websites.
Enterprises face a choice. Allow the use of the sites and accept that a considerable amount of each employee’s day will be devoted to personal social media site use, or place controls to limit use. These can be restrictions on the times that the sites can be accessed, the amount of time each employee is “allowed” to take as Facetime, or the actions that can be performed on social media sites.
There are good reasons for not introducing social media usage policies. Some employers believe social media site use can improve collaboration between employees and departments. Some employers believe social media use can help improve corporate culture and even lead to faster decision making capabilities.
However, some studies suggest that employers lose more than an hour each day per employee to social media networks. If that figure is multiplied by the 500 or more employees in an organization, it represents a considerable productivity loss.
Many employers do not mind a little time on social media sites each day, provided that usage is kept within reasonable limits. An employee cannot be expected to work productively for a full 8 hours a day, so allowing some social media time can help employees recharge before they get back to working at full speed. If an employee takes 5 minutes every hour to check their Facebook feed, it could actually help to increase the work that they perform each day.
Social Media Usage Policies Can Help Employers Manage Security Risk
Use of social media platforms is not only about time not spent working. There is a security risk associated with the use of social media networks. That security risk is considerable and the risk is growing. The Osterman Research study revealed the risk of malware delivery via social media networks is considerable. 18% of respondents said that they had had malware installed as a result of social media site use. 25% said they had experienced a malware attack where they could not determine the origin. Some of those incidents may have also resulted from social media site use.
Social media site use may have benefits, but it is important for enterprises to manage the risks. To do that, social media usage policies are likely to be required along with technological controls to help enforce those policies.
Osterman Research suggested a three step approach should be taken. Before enterprises implement social media usage policies it is important to find out why social media platforms are being used and how often they are being accessed. An audit should be conducted to determine the extent to which sites are accessed, the tools that are being used by employees, the time spent on the sites, and the activities that take place.
This will allow organizations to determine the benefits they get from social media site use and weigh these up against the risks. Appropriate social media usage policies can then be developed.
Employees will need to be trained on appropriate social media usage. Employers have the right to monitor Internet activity at work. The use of Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and other social platforms is therefore not private. Employers should explain that they have the right to monitor social media usage at work and take action against individuals who violate social media usage policies.
Osterman suggests that technologies should be implemented to control social media usage to help mitigate the risk of malware downloads and other social media threats.
Controlling Social Media Usage at Work
WebTitan Gateway – and WebTitan Cloud for WiFi – can help in this regard. Both web filtering solutions can help organizations control the use of social media sites at work and both solutions can be used to enforce social media usage policies. Controls can be placed on when social media sites can be accessed: Outside working hours or during lunch hours for example. Controls can also be set by user group. The marketing department will require a different set of rules to the billing department for example.
Controls can also be implemented to manage risk from malware. The downloading of risky files can be blocked: .exe, .scr, .zip, or .bat for example. Links to malicious websites are often uploaded to social media networks. WebTitan can be configured to prevent those sites from being accessed. WebTitan also allows Internet usage to be carefully monitored.
Many organizations prefer to take a reactive approach to social media use at work, and only introduce controls when there has been a malware attack, a breach of confidentiality, or when site usage has reached unacceptable levels. Taking a more proactive approach can prevent problems before they occur.
Effective enterprise patch management policies can greatly improve security posture and prevent cyberattacks; however, many enterprise IT staff are confused about patch management.
A new survey conducted by Tripwire suggests that InfoSec staff often confuse patch management with vulnerability mitigation. The complexity of enterprise patch management also leaves many security professionals unsure about when patches should be applied and the impact of applying patches.
The Complexity of Enterprise Patch Management Causes Problems for Many IT Security Professionals
The Tripwire survey was conducted on 480 IT security professionals and asked questions about enterprise patch management policies at their organizations.
The results show that IT staff are struggling to ensure that all systems are maintained in a fully patched state. 67% of respondents said that at least some of the time, they are unsure about which patches need to be applied to certain systems.
The complexity of enterprise patch management is a problem. For instance, a patch may be issued to address Adobe Flash vulnerabilities, but it comes bundled with Google Chrome updates. It addresses Flash vulnerabilities in Chrome, where Adobe Flash is embedded, but does not address standalone installations or Flash vulnerabilities in other browsers. 86% of respondents said that issues such as this mean they find it difficult to understand the impact of a patch. It is all too easy for security vulnerabilities to remain after a patch has been applied.
Patches are released that address multiple security vulnerabilities, but they do not address those vulnerabilities across all systems. The application of a patch will not necessarily remediate a security vulnerability entirely. According to Tripwire, ““The relationship between patches and vulnerabilities is far more complex than most people think.”
There is also considerable confusion between patches and software upgrades. When it comes to addressing security vulnerabilities, a patch may address some, an upgrade may address others, and there is often some overlap. Because of this, organizations struggle to ensure that all software is properly patched and fully up to date.
The survey revealed that half of enterprises do not know the difference between applying patches and remediating security vulnerabilities. 7% of respondents didn’t realize there was a difference between applying a patch and resolving a security vulnerability, while 43% said their staff had trouble understanding the difference.
Patches are now being issued regularly and many enterprises find it difficult to cope with the sheer number of patches being released. Before the survey was conducted, Tripwire expected only a small number of organizations to be experiencing “patch fatigue.” However, it is clear from the results of the survey that this is a widespread problem. 50% of respondents said that patches are now being released at an unmanageable rate.
Enterprise patch management may be one of the most basic security measures, but effective patch management is anything but simple.
Five ISP trade groups have put pen to paper questioning the need for the recently proposed FCC rules for broadband providers, saying they are against regulations specifically aimed at ISPs. They believe that consumer information should be protected based on the sensitivity of the data collected, rather than introducing new regulations specifically for the businesses that collect, store, or use those data.
Extensive Set of FCC Rules for ISPs Proposed
An extensive set of rules for ISPs have been proposed following the reclassification of broadband as a regulated, common carrier service. The FCC wants to give broadband customers greater choice and control over how their personal data are used. If the proposed FCC rules for broadband providers are passed they would severely limit how ISPs could use consumer data without first obtaining permission from their customers.
FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler has proposed that consumers should opt-in to the use of their personal data by their ISPs. Currently, ISPs are not required to obtain permission from their customers before they use or share their personal data. The proposed FCC rules for broadband providers would change this, and require consumers to opt-in before ISPs would be permitted to use or share their data for certain purposes.
Under the proposed regulations, data could still be used by ISPs to help them deliver a broadband service that consumers signed up for, for billing purposes, to market improvements to their services, or for other internal reasons on an opt-out basis. However, the new rules would require an opt-in from customers for data use for all other purposes.
Proposed FCC Rules for Broadband Providers Would Require Data Breach Notifications to be Sent to Customers
The proposed FCC rules for broadband providers would also require ISPs to notify consumers about breaches of their personal data. Wheeler has proposed that broadband providers notify consumers of a breach of personal data within 10 days of the discovery of a breach, far faster than is required by laws in the 40 states that have introduced legislation covering breaches of personal information.
Telecoms companies are extensively regulated and their ability to use data collected on consumers is limited. They are not permitted to repurpose or sell data collected from phone activity for example. However, the same rules do not currently apply to broadband providers, even though the data collected from Internet searches and online activity can reveal a great deal about individuals.
The new rules would improve consumer privacy, although trade groups such as USTelecom and CTIA have questioned the need for stricter regulations. They argue that consumers are able to protect their privacy by using VPNs or encryption if they are concerned about their privacy and the sharing of their data. The FCC has said that consumers should not have to rely on those services in order to protect their privacy.
However, privacy groups are calling for change, as under current regulations, American consumers do not have any privacy when they go online. An extensive amount of data is being collected on them via their online activity by their ISP. Those data are being used by ISPs in marketing strategies and as part of advertising partnerships and broadband providers are extensively tracking and profiling users. They argue that consumers need to have a greater say in how their data are being used.
The new proposed FCC rules for broadband providers will be debated during the next meeting on March 31. If approved the rules would be open for a period of public comment.
Ransomware is not new; however, cybercriminals have been using the malicious software with increased frequency in recent months as a sure fire way of generating income. It is now essential to protect networks from ransomware due to the increased risk of attack.
What Is Ransomware?
Ransomware can be considered to be rogue security software. It uses the same encryption that companies are advised to use to protect their data from cyberattackers. It encrypts files to prevent them from being used or accessed. Encrypted files can only be unlocked with a security key. Attackers lock data and demand a ransom to provide the security key. Without the key, the files will remain locked forever. It is therefore important for organizations to take steps to protect networks from ransomware. The threat of attack is increasing and failure to take proactive steps to reduce risk could prove costly.
Why are Ransomware Infections Increasing?
Malware can be used to record keystrokes and gain login credentials to access bank accounts, or to create botnets that can be sold as a service. Corporate secrets can be sold to the highest bidder, or Social Security numbers, names, and dates of birth stolen and sold on to identity thieves. However, attacks of this nature take time and effort. Ransomware on the other hand gives criminals the opportunity to make a quick buck. Several hundred of them in fact.
If a cybercriminal can infect a single machine with ransomware and lock that device, a ransom of between $300 to $500 can be demanded. The ransom must be paid using the virtually anonymous Bitcoin currency. Bitcoin can be bought, sold, traded, and spent without having to disclose any identifying information. Cybercriminals are able to demand ransoms with reasonable certainty that they will not be caught.
Ransomware-as-a-service is being offered on underground networks, meaning cybercriminals do not need to be skilled hackers or programmers. For a payment of between 5% to 20% of the profits and a nominal download fee, criminals are able to use the malware to generate a significant income.
Ransomware is lucrative. One of the most sophisticated strains of ransomware, CryptoWall, has been estimated to have netted its developers around $325 million in profit. Considerably more in fact, since the CyberThreat Alliance figures were calculated in 2015.
It is not difficult to see the attraction of ransomware. Because of the effectiveness of ransomware campaigns, we are only likely to see even more infections in 2016. In fact, this year there have been a number of ransomware infections reported by companies who have failed to protect networks from ransomware infections, leaving them little alternative but to pay to have their data unlocked. The victims include schools, healthcare providers, and even law enforcement departments. All organizations need to protect networks from ransomware or they may be left with little choice but to pay a ransom to unlock their files.
Who Is Being Targeted with Ransomware?
In the majority of cases, individuals and businesses are not actually targeted. Ransomware is sent out randomly via spam email. Oftentimes, millions of emails are sent in a single campaign. It is a numbers game and a percentage of emails will be opened, a smaller number of machines will be infected, and organizations that have failed to protect networks from ransomware are likely to have to pay the ransom.
However, businesses are also being targeted by attackers as the money that can be demanded to unlock devices – and networks – is much higher. A business may decide to pay several thousand dollars to recover critical data. Hackers and cybercriminals know this and are targeting organizations with spear phishing emails designed to get users to visit malicious websites that download ransomware. Spam emails are also sent with the malware disguised as invoices or even image files.
How Much Are Cybercriminals Asking to Unlock Encrypted Devices?
While single users receive $500 demands, the same cannot be said of businesses. Attackers can demand whatever fee they want. In February, Hollywood Presbyterian Hospital felt that paying a $17,000 ransom was the most logical solution considering the cost of data loss, downtime, and the restoration of its systems. The effort required and the cost of rectifying an infection could exceed the ransom cost by several orders of magnitude.
Horry County school district in South Carolina paid a ransom of $8,500 to decrypt 25 servers. The FBI investigated and told the school it had no alternative but to pay the ransom if it wanted to recover its data. In 2015, the Tewkbury, Mass., Police Department was also forced to pay up after it suffered a CryptoLocker attack. While data could be restored from a backup, the most recent file was corrupted and the only viable backup was more than 18 months old. In late February, 2016., Melrose Police Department, Mass., also paid a ransom to unlock files.
Is There an Alternative to Paying A Ransomware Ransom?
Depending on the type of ransomware used by cybercriminals in their attack, it may be possible to unlock data without paying a ransom. In some cases, data may not actually be locked at all. Users may just be fooled into thinking that it is.
Scareware is used to fool users into thinking they have been attacked with ransomware, when in actual fact they have not. Paying the ransom will remove the scareware from the device, but since no files have been encrypted, it is possible to remove the malware without paying the ransom. Many security tools can be used. In fact, that is how the attackers often make their money. By selling victims a security tool to remove their own infection.
Kovtar ransomware is a little different. This malware locks a computer and displays a message that cannot be removed. A lock screen is used which is displayed on boot, which prevents the user from using their device. It resides in the registry, but can be removed without paying a ransom. It has been commonly used as a police scam, claiming the user had visited websites displaying child pornography, even though in all likelihood they did not. It displays an FBI or police department warning, and demands that a payment be made to avoid any further action.
However, ransomware that actually encrypts files is a different beast entirely. Encryption cannot be unlocked without a security key, although it may be possible to restore files from a backup or with a system restore. Provided of course that those files have not also been encrypted. Some ransomware encrypts the files needed to restore data from a backup, or the backup files themselves.
When files have been encrypted, even the FBI has advised individuals to pay the ransom. In 2015, Joseph Bonavolonta, FBI cybercrime chief in Boston, was quoted as saying, “To be honest, we often advise people just to pay the ransom.”
The FBI says that most ransomware attackers are true to their word and supply the keys. That is not necessarily the case though. The keys may not be supplied and the individual could receive a further demand. Some ransomware that has been tweaked has been broken, making it impossible to decrypt locked files. Paying the ransom in such cases would not allow data to be recovered. There is no guarantee that payment of a ransom will result in a working key being provided. It is therefore essential to implement a number of measures to protect networks from ransomware infections.
How to Protect Networks from Ransomware?
There are a number of strategies that can be adopted to protect networks from ransomware infections and to reduce the damage caused if security defenses are breached.
Perform Regular Backups
Performing daily and weekly backups is essential. This measure will not protect networks from ransomware, but it will reduce the damage cause if an infection occurs. Backups of data should ensure files can be recovered. However, backups cannot always be restored. Just as the Tewkbury Police Department. It is essential that backups are not stored on portable devices that are left connected to computers. Ransomware can encrypt portable drives and can scan and lock files on networks, not just on individual devices.
Use a Spam Filter
Ransomware is often spread via spam email. One of the best ways to protect networks from ransomware is to prevent spam email from being delivered. Using a robust spam filtering solution will ensure the majority of malicious emails are caught and quarantined to prevent them from being opened by end users.
SpamTitan blocks 99.9% of spam emails, greatly reducing the likelihood of employees infecting their computers and corporate networks with ransomware.
Train Staff How to Identify Malicious Emails
Staff training is essential and a great way of helping to protect networks from ransomware. Emails are occasionally delivered to inboxes even with a robust spam filter in place. Employees must therefore be made aware of the risk and taught best security practices to avoid compromising their network or infecting their devices. Employees should be told never to open an email attachment that has been sent from someone they do not know. They should always check the email address of the sender carefully. Unfortunately, ransomware is not only spread via spam emails and web-borne attacks are more difficult to identify.
Use WebTitan to Block Malicious Websites
Cybercriminals use malicious advertising – terms malvertising – to lure individuals onto malicious websites where drive-by ransomware downloads take place. These adverts are often placed on legitimate websites via third party advertising networks. Malicious links are also posted on social media networks. Phishing emails also contain links to malicious sites that download ransomware.
One of the best ways that businesses can reduce the risk of a web-borne attack and protect networks from ransomware infections is by limiting the websites that can be accessed via their Wi-Fi and hard-wired networks. Blocking websites known to contain malware, preventing the downloading of file types commonly associated with ransomware, and blocking third party adverts from being displayed can all greatly reduce risk. To do this, a web filter is required.
WebTitan Cloud for Wi-Fi and WebTitan Gateway can be used by businesses, schools, and operators of Wi-Fi networks to reduce the risk of a ransomware attack. WebTitan blocks users from engaging in risky online behaviors and visiting malicious websites. Regardless of the level of training provided to users of computer networks, it is not possible to eliminate risk entirely. Using a web filtering solution to protect networks from ransomware, along with staff training and a spam email filter can greatly improve security posture.
The cost of these protections for businesses, educational institutions, and healthcare organizations is likely to be far lower than the cost of paying a ransom.
As if IT security professionals didn’t have enough to worry about, Skycure has uncovered a new accessibility clickjacking proof of concept malware that could be used to spy on corporate and personal emails, as well as steal corporate data stored on mobile devices.
The malware could be used to spy on all activity on an infected device, from recording emails composed via Gmail to details entered into website forms, mobile banking apps, corporate CRM systems, or messaging apps. In contrast to many mobile malware, this form does not require rooting the device and does not need many app permissions. The footprint left by the malware is incredibility difficult to identify and the user is unlikely to be aware that their device has been compromised.
Clickjacking, also known as a UI redress attack, is the act of fooling a user into clicking on a hyperlink that is hidden in an interface underneath seemingly legitimate content. A user could be playing a mobile game and clicking on parts of the screen, yet unbeknown to them, would also be giving authorizations to a malicious mobile application. That could include any number of permissions, or could be used to authorize a download of malware onto the device.
A typical example of clickjacking is where an attacker uses a fake X button which the user clicks to close an advert. If the X also closes a dialog box or an advert, the user is unlikely to be aware that anything untoward has occurred. Yet that X could also trigger a download or give a malicious app permission to access the microphone or all text entered on the device.
Android 4.4 and Below Susceptible to Accessibility Clickjacking
Accessibility clickjacking takes advantage of accessibility APIs, which were introduced in Android 1.6. The purpose of accessibility APIs is to make Android easier to use for people with disabilities, such as the visually impaired. The benefit is the APIs can perform a number of actions so the user doesn’t have to, but that is also the problem. These APIs have access to system-wide tools, and can interact with numerous interfaces. While these APIs are certainly beneficial, they are a potential security risk that can be exploited.
The accessibility clickjacking PoC malware identified by Skycure takes advantage of accessibility APIs, and by doing so can record virtually all activities performed on the device and perform actions without users’ consent.
The example provided involves a game that takes advantage of the accessibility feature, and gets the user to click on certain parts of the screen to progress to the next level. When a click is performed it gives a permission via the underlying software. In the example it gives an application permission to record all keystrokes entered via the Gmail app.
The researchers have warned that not only can this technique be used for keylogging, but a hacker could also use the technique to change admin settings, disable functions, encrypt the device, or delete files. All Android devices except 5.x and above are susceptible to accessibility clickjacking. That is 65% of all Android phones currently in circulation.
Researchers at Kaspersky Lab say the recently discovered Android Triada Trojan is one of the most sophisticated Android malware variants yet to be discovered and that it rivals Windows-based malware for complexity. 6 out of 10 Android devices are estimated to be vulnerable to attack by the Triada Trojan. As if that is not bad enough, the malware runs silently and embeds itself in the Android system making it virtually impossible to detect. Nikita Buchka, a junior malware analyst at Kaspersky Lab, said “Once Triada is on a device, it penetrates almost all the running processes, and continues to exist in the memory only.” All of the processes remain hidden, both from the user and application.
It has been discovered in the wild and has primarily been use to infect devices in Russia and Ukraine, suggesting that’s where its authors are based; although it has also been found in India and various other APAC countries. The malware is believed to infect devices via app downloads, in particular those downloaded from untrusted sources rather than the Google Play store. That said, in some cases infected apps have been found in Google Play app store.
Kaspersky Lab researchers say the malware has been developed by “very professional” cybercriminals and suggest the developers are extremely experienced hackers with a deep understanding of the Android platform.
Triada Trojan Capable of Monitoring All Phone Activity
The Triada Trojan is capable of gaining access to all apps running on an infected device and can change the code of the app and monitor all activities on the phone. The malware can intercept SMS messages and reroute them, which is how the researchers believe the malware will make its developers money. They say the malware is likely being used to reroute in-app purchases and direct the funds to the attackers’ accounts.
Not only is the Triada Trojan almost impossible to detect with the majority of Android anti-virus and anti-malware programs, even if it is detected, removing the Triada Trojan from an infected device is exceptionally difficult. Standard removal techniques will not succeed in ridding the device of all elements of the Triada Trojan. To disinfect an infected phone, the user has to jailbreak the Android system and manually remove all of the components.
The new malware can only infect Android 4.4.4 Kitkat and below; however even though two new Android versions have since been released, the majority of Android devices run on Kitkat or earlier versions. 30% of devices run on version 4 or below, and those devices are particularly vulnerable to attack.
Kaspersky Lab researchers have previously warned that Trojans that gain superuser privileges and are being used to display advertising or install apps would eventually be used for far more malicious activities such as rooting malware. 11 different Android malware families are known to gain root access, and three of them work together – Ztorg, Gorpo and Leech. Those malware have collectively been identified as Triada.
The malware uses Zygote to launch application processes, which until the discovery of Triada, was only known to be possible as a proof of concept, and had not been exploited in the wild.
The researchers say that the new “Triada of Ztrog, Gorpo and Leech marks a new stage in the evolution of Android-based threats.”
A new report released by the Ponemon Institute suggests data breaches caused by mobile devices are not as rare as previously thought. Last year, Verizon released a data breach report suggesting that while mobile malware is increasing, it is not yet a major threat for attacks on organizations. Attacks are conducted, but they tend to target individuals.
Are Corporate Data Breaches Caused by Mobile Devices?
Verizon determined that only 1% of data breaches use mobile devices as an attack vector. The Ponemon report suggests the figure is far higher, with 67% of respondents claiming the use of mobile devices by employees was certain or likely to have resulted in a beach of sensitive corporate data.
The Ponemon study, which was commissioned by security firm Lookout, set out to cast some light on enterprise mobile security risk. 588 IT security professionals employed by Global 2000 companies in the United States were asked about the threat from mobile devices.
The report suggests there is a disconnect between IT departments and employees when it comes to the data that can be accessed using mobile devices. Many IT departments have implemented controls to limit data access via BYOD or corporate devices. However, employees still appear to be able to access corporate data none the less
The study found significant discrepancies between the data IT departments said could be accessed, and the responses provided by employees. For instance, when both groups were asked about whether confidential or classified documents could be accessed, 33% of employees said access was possible compared to just 8% of IT security professionals. 19% of IT security professionals said mobile devices could not be used to access customer data, yet 43% of employees said the data were accessible via their mobiles.
IT departments must therefore implement better controls to ensure mobile devices cannot be used to access sensitive data, or employees must be trained on the potential risks from using their mobile devices. Policies would also need to be developed to dictate what mobile devices can and cannot be used for.
The Average Infected Mobile Device Costs Organizations $9,485
The report also looked into the cost of data breaches caused by mobile devices. The average infected device was estimated to cost an organization an average of $9,485.
According to the report, mobile malware infections are a real concern. For any given company, many of the devices in use are already be infected with malware. The study suggested that “Of the 53,844 mobile devices in the average Global 2000 enterprise, 1,700 of those devices are infected by malware at any given time.”
When asked about the protections put in place to manage data access by employees, many companies had already implemented a number of safeguards to keep corporate data secure.
47% of organizations used whitelists and blacklists, 40% used mobile device management, while 45% used identity management. However, more than 4 out of 10 respondents said that none of those security measures were used by their organizations.
With the threat from mobile malware high, organizations need to devote more time and resources to mobile device security. Fortunately, this appears to be the case. The Ponemon report indicates that mobile security budgets are increasing and will represent 37% of the IT security budget next year. A considerable improvement on the current 16%.
The source code of a nasty Android banking malware has been leaked via underground forums by an individual who appears to have purchased the malware from the developers. The malware is known by many names, although GM Bot is one of the most common. Others include Slempo, Bankosy, Acecard, and MazarBot.
The code, which was encrypted, was posted on an underground forum and the poster said he would be willing to supply the password to decrypt the file to anyone who asked him, provided they were active members of the forum. He appears to have made good on the offer, although someone else appears to have distributed the password to other individuals. With a number of individuals now in possession of the decrypted file, more attacks using GM Bot can be expected. The source code was previously being sold for $500 via banking
The malware family works using activity hijacking and can be used to attack users of Android 4.4 and below. The malware cannot be used on versions 5 and above, although that does mean that 65% of devices currently in use are susceptible GM Bot android banking malware attacks.
Android Devices Running KitKat and Below Susceptible to The Android Banking Malware
Activity hijacking is a technique used to log activities performed on a compromised device. In the case of this Android banking malware, it is used to record the login credentials entered into mobile banking apps. The user of a compromised device launches a banking app and enters their credentials; however, the malware uses an overlay above the actual app and all input is recorded and transmitted to the hacker.
This Android banking malware is also able to intercept SMS messages, enabling the hackers to hijack authentication codes sent to the user’s device. The malware can also forward phone calls allowing hackers to bypass other security protections used by banks. Data can also be deleted from a compromised device, and it can also capture data entered via websites via the Chrome browser. This Android banking malware is also known to lock users’ devices giving attackers the time they need to pull off banking fraud.
Security experts are predicting a wave of new attacks using GM Bot, but since the hacker also posted details of how it can be installed and supplied a tutorial, hackers could use the information to develop new Android banking variants.
Security vulnerabilities in wireless devices can be exploited by hackers, but what about mousejacking wireless mice and hijacking wireless keyboards? According to a team of security researchers at Bastille, an IoT security start-up, the devices can be hijacked and used by hackers to steal data or compromise a network. Furthermore, in many cases the devices can be hijacked from up to 330 feet away. That’s far enough away for a hacker to be able to sit in his or her car outside a building and force a user to download malware. All a hacker is likely to need is about $15 of very readily accessible hardware say the researchers.
Mousejacking – A New Concern for Security Professionals
Bastille’s researchers looked at wireless mice and keyboards from major device manufacturers such as Logitech, Microsoft, Lenovo, HP, and Gigabyte. Since alerting the manufacturers to the risk of mousejacking and keyboard-jacking, some have released patches to address the vulnerabilities. For others, no patches have yet been developed leaving the devices vulnerable to attack. The problem does not appear to affect Bluetooth devices, but all other mice and keyboards that use a wireless dongle are potentially vulnerable.
With basic hardware, including a software-defined radio, a hacker could scan for the frequencies used by wireless devices and identify targets. Once a target was identified, forged packets could be transmitted to the address of the target.
While traffic sent between a wireless keyboard or mouse and the device’s dongle is encrypted, the dongle can still accept unencrypted commands, provided those keystrokes or clicks appear to come from its accompanying wireless mouse or keyboard. The researchers were able to inject keystrokes by sending unencrypted packets via the dongle that pairs with its wireless device.
Mousejacking could potentially be used to download malware onto devices, although Bastille software engineer Marc Newlin has hypothesized that the flaw could be used by a hacker to set up a wireless hotspot on the device. That hotspot could then be used to exfiltrate data, even in the absence of a network connection. A command window could also be opened on the device and a network vulnerability introduced, or a rootkit could be installed.
Logitech has already issued a patch and Lenovo has addressed the vulnerability for all new devices, but its patch cannot be applied to existing devices and must be installed at the time of manufacture. Microsoft is looking into the reported vulnerability but a patch has not yet been issued. Some Dell devices can also be patched, but not all.
While an mousejacking attack would be complicated and difficult to pull off outside of a controlled environment, a skilled hacker in close proximity to a device could potentially conduct a mousejacking attack. Since mousejacking can be used up to 330 feet away from the device, that individual would not even need to be in the building.
A hacker has compromised the official Linux Mint website and has linked the official Linux Mint ISO to a modified version hosted on a server in Bulgaria. The modified ISO contains malware that will allow the hackers to take control of the machines on which Linux Mint is installed. The Linux Mint cyberattack has impacted all individuals who downloaded the ISO on 20th February.
The ISO included an IRC backdoor that will allow attackers access to all infected systems. The Linux Mint ISO hack was achieved by modifying a PHP script on the WordPress installation used on the site.
The Linux/Tsunami-A malware connects to an IRC server and can receive instructions from the hacker behind the attack. The machine on which the malware is installed could be used as part of a DDoS attack, or the machine could have further malware downloaded to it.
The backdoor had been installed in the 64-bit version of the Linux Mint 17.3 Cinnamon edition. While the 32-bit version does not appear to show any sign of an infection, the hacker responsible appears to have been attempting to install a backdoor in that ISO as well, as that file was also stored on the attacker’s server. The hacker responsible was reportedly trying to construct a botnet, although Mint Protect Leader Clement Lefebvre has said that the intentions of the hacker are not fully understood.
The names of three individuals who are believed to be involved in the Linux Mint cyberattack have been obtained by Lefebvre’s team. They are associated with the website on which the modified ISO was hosted, although it is not clear at this stage whether an investigation into those individuals will be launched. That will depend on whether any further action is taken by the hacker, according to a blog post by Lefebvre.
Linux Mint Cyberattack Compromised 71,000 User Accounts
In addition to linking to a modified version of the ISO file, the forum database on the Linux website has also been compromised. The account details of all 71,000 individuals registered on the forum have been exposed. That database has been listed for sale for a reported 0.197 Bitcoin according to ZDNet.
Fortunately, the Linux Mint cyberattack was discovered quickly and action taken to prevent further malicious copies of the ISO being downloaded. The Linux website has been taken offline while the issue is fixed.
All individuals who downloaded the ISO from the official website have been advised to check to see if their version has been hacked. It is possible to determine whether the ISO has been hacked by checking its MD5 signature by running “md5sum yourfile.iso”, using the name of the downloaded ISO and checking this against the valid signatures posted on the Linux Mint website.
All individuals who have an account on forums.linuxmint.com have had their username, email address, private messages, and encrypted copies of their password exposed. Users have been advised to change their passwords immediately.
Nothing is certain in life apart from death and taxes, apart from tax season phishing scams which have started particularly early this year. Inboxes are already being flooded with phishing emails as cybercriminals attempt to file tax returns early. Not their own tax returns of course, but fraudulent claims on behalf of any email recipient who divulges their Social Security number and personal data to the scammers.
Tax season phishing emails are sent out in the millions in the run up to the April 15, deadline. If a tax refund can be submitted before the victim, the criminals will receive the refund check.
How to Spot Tax Season Phishing Scams
Each year tax fraudsters develop new and ever more convincing phishing scams to get taxpayers to divulge their personal data and Social Security numbers. With these data, fraudsters can submit fake tax returns in the names of the victims.
While phishing emails can be easy to spot in some cases, the fraudsters are now getting much better at crafting official looking emails that appear to have been set from the IRS.
The emails use the same language that one would expect the IRS to use and the email templates use official logos. The emails contain links that have been masked to make the email recipient think they are being taken to an official website. Clicking on the link will fire up a browser window and the soon-to-be-victim will be taken to a website that looks official.
Visitors will be asked to update their personal information, add their Social Security number, or even be requested to divulge their Self-Select PIN for the online tax portal. Divulging these data is almost certain to result in tax fraud.
Tax Season Phishing Emails Are A Growing Concern
Taxpayers have been warned to be ultra-cautious. More tax season phishing scams have been identified this year than in previous years, with tax-related phishing and malware scams up 400% year on year.
IRS Commissioner John Koskinen warned that “Criminals are constantly looking for new ways to trick you out of your personal financial information so be extremely cautious about opening strange emails.”
Tax season phishing scams are not only conducted via email. In fact, phone scams have previously been one of the commonest ways that criminals obtain the information they need to submit fraudulent tax returns; however, the use of phishing emails is growing.
For the 2014 tax year, the IRS received 1,361 reports of phishing and malware schemes in the run up to the April deadline. That total has already been surpassed and February is not yet over. 1,389 reports have already been received. The January total was 254 higher than for the 2014 tax year, with 363 incidents reported by February 16, which is 162 more than the total for the entire month of February last year.
IRS Tax Season Phishing Emails Used to Deliver Malware
While criminals are attempting to phish for personal data, that is not the only consequence of clicking on a malicious link. The websites used by the cybercriminals behind these phishing scams are loaded with malware. Those malware enable cybercriminals to log keystrokes on infected computers and gain access to far more data than Social Security numbers. Bank account logins and passwords can be obtained, access to email accounts, and much more.
Tax Professionals Are Being Targeted with Phishing Scams
It is not only the public that must be vigilant and on the lookout for tax season phishing scams. Tax professionals are also being targeted by cybercriminals using similar schemes. The aim is to get accountants and tax advisers to reveal their online credentials such as their IRS Tax Professional PTIN System logins.
The IRS advice is to be vigilant and report any suspected phishing email. The IRS does not typically request data via email and does not initiate contact with taxpayers via email, text message, or social media channels. If an email is received asking for a link to be clicked or an attachment to be opened, it is likely to be a scam and should be reported to the IRS.
Palo Alto Networks has announced the discovery of the Xbot Trojan; a new mobile security threat targeting users of Android Smartphones. Not only will the malware steal banking usernames and passwords, but it can also lock users’ devices and demand a ransom to unlock them. The new family of dual action malware acts as both a Trojan and ransomware, and is a double whammy for anyone who inadvertently downloads it to their Android phone.
Xbot Trojan Family Capable of Multiple Acts of Maliciousness
The new Xbot Trojan, which is believed to be of Russian origin, is capable of phishing for bank account information, targeting specific banking apps and conducting phishing attacks on users of Google Play. It displays fake notifications using the Google Play logo asking users to add in payment information, mimicking that used by the official Google Play app.
Clicking on the notification will download a webpage asking users to enter their credit card number, expiry date, CVV number as well as the name of the card holder, their registered address, phone number, and a verified by via number or Mastercard SecureCode. The Xbot Trojan is also capable of intercepting two-factor authorization SMS messages.
So far, Palo Alto has discovered fake webpages used by the malware to target customers of 7 different Australian banks, with the login interfaces closely mimicking those used by the legitimate apps. Users are asked to enter in their ID numbers and passwords. The malware does not compromise the legitimite banking apps, only mimics their interfaces.
The C2 contacted by the malware can decide which faked app webpage to display, so it could easily be adapted to target other banks in other countries.
Additionally, the Xbot Trojan is capable of encrypting the device on which it is installed. It displays an interface using WebView suggesting the device has been locked with CryptoLocker, and demands a ransom of $100 to unlock the device. The ransom must be paid via PayPal MoneyCash Card within 5 days.
While the interface says that the user has no alternative but to pay the ransom to unlock the encrypted files, the encryption used is not particularly robust and files could potentially be recovered without paying the ransom.
The Xbot Trojan is also an information stealer and can collect and exfiltrate phone contacts to its C2 server. It can also intercept all SMS messages that are sent following its installation.
Xbot Trojan is the Latest Incarnation of Aulrin?
The Xbot Trojan uses activity hijacking, which is the launching of a malicious activity instead of the intended one when a user attempts to open an app. While the user will believe they are using the correct application, such as a banking app, they will actually just be handing over their banking credentials to the hackers behind the malware. So far, Palo Alto has discovered 22 Android apps in the new Xbot Trojan family.
The first samples of the malware appeared in late spring last year, but since then new variants have appeared that are increasing in complexity, making them harder to detect.
The good news, unless you live in Russia or Australia, is the infections have so far been confined to those countries. The bad news is that the malware’s flexible infrastructure means it could very easily be adapted to target other Android apps.
A Google engineer has accidentally discovered a critical glibc security vulnerability that has existed since 2008. After committing several hours to hacking the vulnerability, Google engineers managed to come up with a fully working exploit that could be used to remotely control Linux devices. The glibc security vulnerability has been compared to the Shellshock security vulnerability uncovered in 2014 due to sheer number of hardware devices and apps that could potentially be affected.
The security vulnerability came as a surprise to Google engineers who were investigating an error in an SSH application which caused a segmentation fault when trying to access a specific web address. It was only after a detailed investigation that they discovered the fault lay with glibc.
Maintainers of glibc were contacted and alerted to the security vulnerability, but as it turns out they were already aware of the issue. It had been reported in July 2015 but had not been rated as a priority. That said, when Google contacted Red Hat, they confirmed they too had discovered the flaw and were working on a patch.
Linux Devices at Risk from Critical Glibc Security Vulnerability
While Windows, OS X, and Android devices are unaffected by the glibc security vulnerability, hundreds of thousands of hardware devices could potentially be affected. The security flaw affects most distributions of Linux and thousands of applications that use GNU C Library source code. All versions of glibc above 2.9 are affected.
The code is used for Linux distributions used for a wide range of hardware, including routers. The vulnerability is a buffer overflow bug in a function that performs domain lookups: getaddrinfo()
If hackers managed to replicate Google’s exploit they would be able take advantage of the vulnerability and remotely execute malicious code. The security vulnerability could be exploited when unpatched devices make queries to domain names or domain name servers controlled by attackers.
Google engineers have been working with Red Hat to develop a patch to address the vulnerability, and by combining knowledge of the vulnerability they have been able to develop a fix for the flaw, and a patch has now been released. It is essential that the patch is applied as soon as possible to ensure that the vulnerability cannot be exploited.
Updating to the latest version of glibc may be a fairly straightforward process. Linux servers can be patched by downloading the update, although things may not be quite so straightforward for some applications, which will need to be recompiled with the new library code. This could potentially result in a number of devices remaining vulnerable for some time.
Now that the vulnerability has been announced, hackers will be attempting to develop an exploit. Google has published a proof of concept, although obviously not full details of its weaponized exploit. The exploit is apparently not straightforward, which should buy Linux administrators a little time and allow them to check systems and ensure that affected hardware devices are patched.
One of the main priorities for IT professionals in 2016 is securing Wi-Fi hotspots. The use of unsecured public Wi-Fi is notoriously risky. Cybercriminals spy on the activity taking place at WiFi hotspots, and it is at these Internet access points is where many man-in-the-middle attacks take place.
The Dangers of Unsecured WiFi
Preventing employees from using personally owned and work devices on unsecured Wi-Fi networks is a major challenge, but one that must be met in order to keep work networks free from malware.
When employees use smartphones, tablets, and laptops to connect to unsecured Wi-Fi networks, there is a high risk that those devices may be compromised. Hotspots are frequently used to deliver malware to unsuspecting website visitors, and malicious software can subsequently be transferred to work networks. With personally owned devices increasingly used for private and work purposes, the risk of a work network malware infection is particularly high.
The risks associated with unsecured Internet access points are well known, yet people still tend to still engage in risky behavior when accessing the Internet via these wireless networks. In a rush to take advantage of free Internet access, basic security best practices are all too often ignored. Devices are allowed to connect to Wi-Fi hotspots automatically and Wi-Fi hotspots are not checked to find out if they are genuine or have been spoofed.
Security Professionals Concerned About Employees’ Use of Unsecured WiFi Networks
A recent survey conducted by the Cloud Security Alliance indicates security professionals are very concerned about the use of unsecured WiFi networks. The Cloud Security Alliance is a collective of security professionals, businesses, and privacy and security organizations that are committed to raising awareness of cybersecurity best practices.
The organization recently conducted a survey and asked 210 security professionals their opinions on the top threats to mobile computing in 2016. 2010 member organizations were polled and more than 8 out of 10 respondents (81%) said that the threat from unsecured WiFi access points was very real, and was one of the biggest mobile security risks in 2016.
The Importance of Securing WiFi Hotspots
Many organizations that operate a network of Wi-Fi hotspots have yet to implement security measures to keep users of those networks secure. Those Wi-Fi access points are made available to customers in bars, restaurants, hotels, airport lounges, sporting venues, and on public transport such as busses and trains.
Guests are allowed to connect to those networks, yet little is done to police the activity that takes place over the network. Consequently, the door is left open for cybercriminals to conduct attacks.
Failing to provide even a basic level of security is a big mistake. If patrons suffer malware infections, data loss, identity theft, or other forms of fraud as a result of accessing the internet at a particular location, they are likely never to return.
With IT professionals now educating their staff members about the dangers of using unsecured WiFi access points, businesses that offer secure WiFi access are likely to attract far greater numbers of customers than those that do not.
There is a cost associated with securing WiFi hotspots of course. However, what must be considered is the amount of business that will be lost as a result of not securing WiFi hotspots. The cost of implementing security measures is likely to be much lower in the long run.
Securing WiFi Hotspots with WebTitan Cloud for WiFi
A business offering customers wireless Internet access used to have to purchase additional hardware or software in order to secure WiFi access points. Not only was there a cost associated with adding a security solution, implementing that solution was a complex task that required skilled staff and many man-hours.
Providing a secure browsing environment for customers would mean getting them to download software to the device used to access the Internet. That is hardly a practical solution for a bar or restaurant where quick and easy access to the internet is required by customers.
WebTitan offers a much easier solution that makes securing WiFi hotspots a quick and easy task. Since WebTitan Cloud for WiFi is a 100% cloud-based security solution, it requires no additional hardware and no software installations. Any user can connect to a WiFi network and benefit from a secure browsing environment, regardless of the device they use to connect.
Setting up a WiFi web filtering security solution is also fast and painless, and doesn’t require much in the way of technical expertise. Simply change the DNS settings and point them to WebTitan, and a secure browsing environment will be available to customers in a matter of minutes.
Websites known to contain malware can be easily blocked, users can be prevented from downloading files types frequently associated with malware, and web content can be filtered to stop users from engaging in questionable internet activity such as viewing pornography. Securing WiFi hotspots couldn’t be any easier.
If you are interested in securing WiFi hotspots run by your company, contact WebTitan today to find out just how easy and cost effective it can be to offer your clients a secure browsing environment.
Organizations running WiFi networks are facing attacks from all angles. Many companies are choosing to implement web filters for WiFi networks to help mitigate risk from the growing number of malware variants that are being used to attack businesses via their WiFi networks.
A new report issued by Bilbao-based antivirus software developer Panda Security, has revealed the extent of the problem. Last year, over 84 million new malware samples were identified, which equates to 27% of all malware previously identified.
The proliferation in malware has been attributed, in part, to the rise in use of antivirus software and the effectiveness of those software programs. When a new malware is discovered, antivirus signatures are updated and shared with all antivirus software developers. In a very short space of time, all AV engines will block a particular malware.
Hackers have respondent by using software that modifies malware slightly, allowing hundreds or thousands of variants to be released. An increased number of malware variants are needed in order to get past antivirus software programs, as many AV engines are capable of detecting malware that has been modified slightly. The more variants are used, the higher the probability of malware getting past security software.
When Panda was formed in 1990, the company was detecting approximately 100 new malware variants a day. Today 230,000 new samples are discovered every day, on average.
Trojans are the most common malware form, with the full breakdown of new malware variants detailed below:
% of new malware discovered in 2015
Blocking Malware with a Web Filtering Solution
Malware is installed on user devices via a variety of different vectors. Spam email is one of the most common methods of malware delivery, but fortunately, one of the most straightforward to block. A robust anti-spam solution can be used to block the vast majority (over 99.7%) of spam emails from being delivered. Training users how to recognize malware can help to ensure that any rogue emails that get past the filter will be identified and deleted before any damage is caused.
Blocking malware from being installed via malicious websites can be more difficult. Hackers use exploit kits to probe for security vulnerabilities in browsers and browser plug-ins, and deliver malware in drive-by attacks without the knowledge of website visitors. Social engineering tactics are used to fool users into downloading malware, and malicious software can be installed on legitimate websites or placed on adverts displayed by those websites.
One of the best protections to implement to ensure users’ devices are not infected with malware is a web filter. A web filter will restrict access to websites known to contain malware, as well as categories of websites where malware is most likely to be located. As well as protecting users from objectionable website content such as pornography or religious extremist material, it will also keep their devices safe and free from Trojans, viruses, worms and other malicious software. A web filtering solution can be a highly effective protection against malware as part of a multi-layered security system.
Web Filters for Wi-Fi Networks Keep Internet Users Secure
One of the ways enterprises are keeping their wireless networks secure is by using web filters for WiFi networks. WiFi networks are particularly risky and need to be secured. Due to the risk of using wireless networks, many customers avoid networks that are unsecured.
Installing software solutions on individual devices that connect to wireless networks is far from ideal. Many companies have BYOD policies that permit the use of personal devices at work, and it would not be practical to install web filtering software solutions on each and every device used to connect to the network. In a coffee shop or hotel, this would simply not be possible.
The easy solution is to use DNS-based web filtering solutions, as they do not require the installation of any software on users’ devices. All that is required to run DNS-based web filtering is a simple change to the DNS server addresses on the company’s router.
Any user with a modicum of technical knowhow would be able to bypass a DNS-based web filter and access blocked content, although with some minor configuration changes to the router, users can be prevented from using any other DNS servers other that the one with the web filtering solution in place.
WebTitan’s web filters for WiFi networks
WebTitan’s web filters for WiFi networks offer highly granular controls. WebTitan’s web filters for WiFi networks can be fine-tuned to suit any organization’s needs, allowing light control of Internet use to highly restrictive Internet filtering.
No software installations are required thanks to the 100% cloud-based system, and no additional hardware is required. Only very minor changes need to be made to point DNS servers to the correct location, and after basic parameters are set, WebTitan’s web filters for WiFi networks will be up and running.
It may not be possible to eliminate the risk of a malware attack, but with WebTitan’s web filters for WiFi networks the risk can be reduced to an acceptable level.
Key benefits of WebTitan web filters for WiFi networks
100% cloud based Internet filtering solution
No hardware or software installations required
Suitable for static and dynamic IPs
No impact on broadband speed
Suitable for use with multiple routers
An ideal solution for WiFi hotspot providers
Scalable solution for businesses large and small
Highly competitive pricing
Central control using an intuitive administration panel
Full suite of reports and instant alerts
Find out more about the benefits of installing web filters for WiFi networks by calling WebTitan today
Two highly serious Netgear NMS300 ProSafe security vulnerabilities have been discovered that could be exploited by hackers to gain control of servers running the software, and/or download any file on the server on which the software is running.
The Netgear NMS300 ProSafe network management system is used by many companies to configure and monitor their network devices. Netgear NMS300 ProSafe is popular with small to medium size businesses as the software is free to use on fewer than 200 devices.
Recently Agile Information Security researcher Pedro Ribero discovered two critical Netgear NMS300 ProSafe security vulnerabilities.
Netgear NMS300 ProSafe Security Vulnerabilities
One of the vulnerabilities (CVE-2016-1525) allows remote code execution by an unauthenticated user via the Netgear NMS300 web interface. A hacker would be able to exploit this security flaw and upload and run java files with full system privileges, potentially gaining full control of the server on which the software is being run.
The NMS300 system is used to manage a wide range of networked devices such as routers, switches, network-storage devices, wireless access points and firewalls. Not only could this vulnerability allow the configuration of these devices to be changed, it would also permit an attacker to install firmware updates on those devices.
The second vulnerability (CVE-2016-1524) discovered by Ribeiro is an arbitrary file download, that would permit an authenticated user to download any file stored on the server that is being used to run NMS300.
These Netgear NMS300 ProSafe security vulnerabilities are particularly serious and at the present time there is no patch available to plug the security flaws. Users can improve protection and prevent the Netgear NMS300 ProSafe security vulnerabilities from being exploited by restricting access to the web interface with new firewall rules to limit access. Ribeiro recommends never exposing Netgear NMS300 to the Internet or untrusted networks.
Both vulnerabilities affect Netgear NMS300 versions 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199
A new report released by data privacy and security group Morrison and Foerster indicates the main privacy and security concerns of customers.
Don’t Ignore the Privacy and Security Concerns of Customers
If you ignore the privacy and security concerns of customers it is likely to have a significant effect on your bottom line.
A new report recently released by Morrison and Foerster suggests that consumers are even more concerned about their privacy than four years ago. Furthermore, many will take action if they feel their privacy is not protected. The survey indicates more than one in three consumers have switched companies they do business with due to privacy concerns, and one in five would switch after a breach of their personal data.
The company conducted a survey on 900 U.S. consumers in November, 2015. 35% of respondents said they had taken the decision switch companies or not buy products as a result of privacy concerns. When it came to a breach of personal information, 22% of individuals said they had taken the decision to stop purchasing products or had switched services as a result.
According to the report, more educated individuals and higher earners were the most likely to stop doing business with a company as a result of a data breach. 28% of respondents educated to college degree level or higher said they would make the switch after a data breach compared to 18% of individuals without a college degree.
For the upper income bracket, 33% said they stopped buying as a result of a data breach. That figure fell to 28% for the middle income bracket, and 17% for the low income bracket.
When the company conducted the survey back in 2011, 54% of consumers said that privacy concerns affected their decision to make a purchase. In 2015, 82% of consumers said that privacy concerns influenced their purchasing decisions.
Companies are not perfect, but consumers are intolerant of data breaches
In 2011, 16% of consumers believed no business was perfect, and were therefore likely to overlook privacy issues and data breaches, whereas in 2015 the figure had fallen to 9%.
The greatest concern is now the risk of identity theft, with the percentage of individuals worried about thieves stealing their identity jumping from 24% in 2011 to 52% in 2015.
The survey shows that not only must companies do more to earn the trust of consumers, they must also do more, and be seen to be doing more, to safeguard the data they store on consumers, especially Social Security numbers, passwords and personal IDs, payment card information, and user IDs, passwords and account information.
How to improve your security posture and prevent data breaches
It is essential to implement multi-layered security systems to prevent cyberattacks. For businesses, one of the biggest problems is how to stop employees from inadvertently compromising a network. Security training is therefore essential. Employees must be advised of security risks and given regular training to help avoid scams, malicious websites, and told how to identify phishing emails.
It is essential that risky behavior is eradicated. Internet and BYOD policies must be introduced that cover the acceptable uses of the devices, and the sites that are permitted to be accessed at work. However, not all employees will adhere to those policies. For maximum protection it is strongly advisable to implement a solution that reduces the risk of malware downloads.
A web filtering solution is essential I this regard. A web filter can block malicious websites and reduce the risk of malware infections, while also being configured to protect end users from malvertising.
A patch management policy must be implemented and software updates installed promptly to prevent zero-day security vulnerabilities from being exploited.
Anti-virus and anti-malware software must be used. A different engine for servers and end users is a wise precaution to maximize the probability of malware and viruses from being installed.
It is now an inevitability that a data breach will be suffered at some point in time, but reducing the likelihood of that happening is essential. It is important to pay attention to the privacy and security concerns of customers. Show consumers how dedicated you are to protecting their privacy, and implement a wide range of controls to prevent a data breach and you will reduce the risk of losing customers to better protected organizations.
Ask anyone to name a basic security protection to prevent hackers from gaining access to a device or network, and the use of a secure password would feature pretty high up that list. However, even a tech giant the size of Lenovo can fail to implement secure passwords. Recent Lenovo SHAREit vulnerabilities have been discovered, one of which involves the use of a hard-coded password that ranks as one of the easiest to guess.
Recently, SplashData published a list of the 25 worst passwords of 2015, and the one chosen by Lenovo is listed in position three between “password” and “qwerty.” To all intents and purposes, Lenovo may well not have bothered adding a password at all, such is the degree of security that the password offers. That password has also been hardcoded.
In fact, the company didn’t actually bother with adding a password at all in one of the new SHAREit vulnerabilities.
Four Lenovo SHAREit vulnerabilities have now been patche
Lenovo SHAREit is a free cross-platform file transfer tool that allows the sharing of files across multiple devices, including PCs, tablets and Smartphones. Perhaps unsurprisingly, given Lenovo has been found to be installing irremovable software via Rootkit and shipping its laptops with pre-installed spyware, some security vulnerabilities exist in its SHAREit software.
Four new Lenovo SHAREit vulnerabilities have been discovered showing some shocking security lapses by the Chinese laptop manufacturer. If the Lenoto SHAREit vulnerabilities are exploited, they could result in leaked information, integrity corruption, and security protocol bypasses, and be used for man-in-the-middle attacks.
The hardcoding of the password 12345678, listed as CVE-2016-1491 by Core Security, is shocking. Configure Lenovo ShareIt for Windows to receive files, and 12345678 is set as the password for a Wi-Fi hotspot. The password is always the same and any system with a Wi-Fi Network could connect.
According to Core Security, if the Wi-Fi network is on and connected, files can be browsed by performing an HTTP Request to the WebServer launched by Lenovo SHAREit, although they cannot be downloaded. (CVE-2016-1490).
The third vulnerability, named CVE-2016-1489, is the transfer of files in plain text via HTTP without encryption. A hacker could not only view those files but also modify the content.
The fourth SHAREit vulnerability, CVE-2016-1492, concerns SHAREit for Android. When configured to receive files, an open Wi-Fi HotSpot is created and no password is set. If a hacker were to connect, the transferred files could be intercepted.
Core Security did disclose the Lenovo SHAREit vulnerabilities privately in October last year to allow a patch to be developed. Now that the patch has been issued to plug the vulnerabilities, Core Security has published the details.
An Irish data security survey conducted in December, 2015., has revealed that a third of Irish companies have suffered a data breach in the past 12 months, highlighting the need for Irish companies to improve their security posture.
ICS Irish data security survey indicates employees are the biggest risk
150 IT security professionals took part in the Irish Computer Society survey with 33% claiming their employer had suffered a data breach in the past 12 months. In 71% of cases, the data breaches occurred as a result of the actions of staff members.
Perhaps unsurprisingly given the number of inadvertent data breaches that had been caused by staff members, 45% of respondents cited employee negligence as being the biggest single data security threat they faced. Protecting networks from errors made by employees is going to be one the biggest security challenges faced by Irish IT professionals in 2016.
Other major security concerns highlighted by respondents included the increasing number of end user devices that are being used to store sensitive data, and the increasing threat of cyberattacks by hackers.
Improving security posture by tackling the issue of employee negligence
Employees are the weakest link in the security chain, but that is unlikely to change unless less technical members of staff are provided with training. It is essential that they are advised of the risk of cyberattacks and what they can personally do to lessen the chance of a data breach occurring. In many cases, some of the most fundamental data security measures are not so much ignored, but are just not understood by some members of staff.
It may be common knowledge for instance, that 123456 does not make a very secure password, that email attachments from strangers should not be opened, and links to funny videos of cats on social media networks might not turn out to be as innocuous as they seem.
Tackling the issue of (dare we say) employee data security stupidity is essential. It is far better to do this before a breach is suffered than afterwards. Proactive steps must be taken to improve understanding of cybersecurity risks, and what employees can do to reduce those risks.
ICS Irish data security survey respondents indicated the best way of improving data protection knowledge is by conducted formal training sessions. 57% of respondents said this was the best approach to deal with data security knowledge gaps.
Fortunately, the level of training being provided to staff is increasing, not only for end users but also data security staff. However, there is clearly still a long way to go. Only 56% of respondents said they had received the right level of training on how to achieve the objectives set up their organizations.
The full findings of the Irish data security survey will be made available at the Association of Data Protection Officers National Data Protection Conference, taking place on January 27/28 in Ballsbridge, Dublin.
A security vulnerability has been discovered with FortiGuard network firewall appliances that could potentially be exploited by hackers. Should the FortiGuard SSH backdoor be exploited, a hacker would be able to gain full administrative privileges to Fortinet security appliances.
FortiGuard SSH backdoor is an unintentional security vulnerability
The FortiGuard SSH backdoor was not been installed by hackers, but is an unintentional security vulnerability in the FortiOS operating system. The FortiGuard SSH backdoor was discovered this month by a third party security researcher. An exploit for the security vulnerability has already been published, making it imperative that all users of FortiGuard firewall appliances install the latest version of the operating system. All users must ensure that their devices are running on FortiGuard version 5.2 or above.
After the security vulnerability was announced Fortinet started an investigation to determine whether any other devices were affected. A statement released by Fortinet last week indicates that in addition to Fortinet FortiGuard, FortiAnalyzer, FortiCache, and FortiSwitch are also affected and contain the vulnerability.
In order to prevent the backdoor from being exploited users have been advised to upgrade to version 3.0.8 of FortiCache, version 3.3.3 of FortiSwitch, and versions 5.0.12 or 5.2.5 of FortiAnalyzer.
The FortiGuard SSH backdoor is a Secure Shell vulnerability. According to a Fortinet blog post, the security vulnerability has not been created by a malicious insider or outsider, but was an “unintentional consequence” of a feature of the operating system. The aim was to ensure “seamless access from an authorized FortiManager to registered FortiGate devices.” The vulnerability involves an undocumented account which has a hard-coded password.
If it is not possible for users to immediately upgrade to the latest OS, Fortinet advises using a manual get around, which involves disabling SSH access and switching to a web-based management interface until the OS can be upgraded.
Last month a security vulnerability was discovered in the ScreenOS operating system used by Juniper Networks. In that case, the backdoor had been inserted by a malicious insider or outsider. The code would allow a hacker to gain full administrative privileges to NetScreen firewall devices and view encrypted data sent via VPN networks.
Many companies have responded to the threat of data theft by hackers by using encryption. If hackers do break through the security perimeter and gain access to computers or networks, customer data will not be exposed. However, the same cannot be said of employee data. A new security report suggests employee data theft is rife, and that the personal information of employees is much more likely to be stolen that customer data.
Employee data theft is a real concern – Don’t forget to encrypt ALL sensitive data!
A recent study has shown that when it comes to protecting intellectual property and the personal information of employees, mid-sized companies around the world fail to use the same stringent measures that they apply to customer data.
The Sophos/Vanson Bourne study revealed that 43% of midsized companies – those employing between 100 and 2,000 members of staff – do not regularly encrypt human resources files. Human resources files usually contain sensitive information on employees: names, addresses, contact telephone numbers, dates of birth, emergency contact information, and government IDs such as Social Security numbers. These are exactly the kind of data sought by hackers. These data can easily be used to commit identity theft.
The survey was conducted on respondents from Australia, Canada, Japan, Malaysia, and the United States indicating this is a global problem.
In the United States, where ma high percentage of cyberattacks on midsized companies are taking place, 45% of companies appear not to be encrypting employee data, even though these companies face a high risk of employee data theft. Even financial data is left relatively unprotected. Almost a third of companies in the United States are not encrypting their financial data.
It is not a case of encryption not being implemented at all by midsized companies. In the United States for example, 43% of midsized companies use encryption to some degree, while 44% claim they widely encrypt data. The figures are understandably lower for small organizations, in a large part due to the cost of encryption. 38% of small businesses widely encrypted data. Half of larger organizations used encryption for most data.
Companies are not applying safeguards evenly and are leaving gaping security holes. It is not only the threat of employee data theft that is being underestimated. Many organizations are not encrypting data they send to the cloud. Only 47% claimed to encrypt “some files” sent to the cloud and just 39% encrypt all data sent to the cloud. However, 84% of respondents claimed to be worried about cloud security.
Why is encryption not being universally applied?
The survey probed respondents to find out why data encryption is not being used. Four out of ten organizations claimed this was due to budgetary constraints. Three out of ten said it was because of performance trade-offs and a similar number said it was an issue with how to actually encrypt data. Interestingly almost 20% of respondents claimed that encryption wasn’t actually effective at protecting sensitive data.
There is also a commonly held belief that encryption is complex, or cannot easily be implemented. While this was certainly the case a few years ago when full disk encryption was the only option, this is now no longer the case. Encryption technology has advanced considerably in recent years. Companies should therefore take a fresh look at encryption and take steps to prevent employee data theft and the exposure and theft of their intellectual property.
Hackers steal data for financial gain. Employee data theft should be a concern, as should the theft of intellectual property. These data have considerable value. It is not just customer data that can be used to commit fraud or be sold on the black market.
There as a clear need for British libraries to implement web filtering solutions to restrict the content that can be accessed through library computers. However, as has been recently discovered, web filter implementation errors can all too easily result in important and valuable Internet content being blocked.
Web filter implementation errors damage public access to content sought by vulnerable users
Give a schoolboy a dictionary and it will not be long before the exact meaning of every cuss word will have been looked up. Provide totally free access to the Internet without the watchful eye of parents and it will not be long before access is used to access pornography and other objectionable content.
The anonymity afforded by library computers allows objectionable content to be accessed, such as pornography, ISIS propaganda, and other web content and imagery that has potential to cause harm. Libraries are an extremely valuable resource, but the type of information that can be accessed does need to be controlled, according to some local authorities at least.
The implementation of a web filtering solution was deemed to be an appropriate safeguard to prevent unsavory content from being accessed on library computers in Britain. The problem with using a web filter is how to prevent potentially damaging content from being accessed, while ensuring that those filters do not block access to acceptable content, especially content that many people may choose to access quite legitimately in a library. Content about sexual health for example.
Many vulnerable individuals may not be able to access sexual health information at home. The sites that are accessed may be seen by family members for example. A teenager may want information about contraception, abortion, or sexually transmitted diseases, yet be unable to search for the information they need at home. They may want to access resources produced for the LGBT community. A library is an ideal place for this important information to be obtained. Information that may prevent these individuals from coming to harm.
Data recently released by the Radical Librarians Collective indicates that web filter implementation errors have resulted in much of this important content being blocked, even though this is exactly the sort of content that libraries exist to provide. The problem is not the use of web filters, but web filter implementation errors and a lack of intelligent oversight, according to the collective.
Web filtering policies should be developed to allow anonymous unblocking of legitimate websites
Library officials have implemented web filtering solutions, but have done so with a top-down filtering policy. This has resulted in valuable and important content being blocked by the filters. The data came from a study of over 200 local authorities and showed content that should be permitted under acceptable use policies was being blocked.
If solutions are used to filter the Internet there will naturally be some websites that are accidentally blocked, just as some sites containing objectionable content may still be accessible. It may not be a case of web filter implementation errors being made. A web filter does require some fine-tuning and a few false positives and false negatives are to be expected. The problem in Britain appears to involve more than just a few websites, indicating web filer implementation errors have been made.
Another problem is that individuals trying to access blocked content do not request libraries to unblock websites out of embarrassment or fear.
When a web filter is used, it is vital that policies are developed to permit users to request access to a particular website if it can be legitimately viewed under the library’s allowable usage policy. However, due to the sensitive nature of some information, sexual health matters for instance, users should be able to make that request without fear of repercussions. Allowing requests to be submitted anonymously could help in this regard.
New Android Smartphone malware has been identified that gets around the security systems used by banks and other financial institutions to keep customers protected. The malware is managing to intercept messages that are sent to customers’ Smartphones used as part of the bank’s two-factor authentication system. However, an update to the Android Smartphone malware means it is now capable of intercepting passcodes on more robust 2FA systems.
Two-factor authentication is not infallible
Two-factor authentication offers enhanced security for bank customers. Rather than relying on a username and a password, and additional factor is used to verify identity. A one-time passcode is sent to a user’s Smartphone and that passcode is then used to authorize a transaction. If the passcode is not entered the transaction cannot be made. The codes are sent to the Smartphone via SMS in most cases, although some banks use an automated voice call to deliver the passcode.
This means that even if a user’s login credentials are obtained by a criminal they cannot be used to authorize a bank transfer unless the attacker has also managed to obtain the Smartphone of the account holder (or other device registered with the bank and used for two-factor authentication.)
While two-factor authentication makes it harder for fraudulent transactions to be made, the system is not infallible. In fact, the account holder’s device does not even need to be stolen in order for a criminal to empty a bank account. If malware can be loaded onto the device that can intercept the SMS text this will allow an attacker in possession of the login credentials to make fraudulent transfers.
Automated voice call passcode delivery intercepted by Android Smartphone malware
SMS messages can be intercepted easily if malware is installed on a device. Because of this, some banks are moving away from SMS passcodes and are now favoring the delivery of codes via an automated voice message. However, the latest android Smartphone malware is capable of obtaining these passcodes as well.
Android.Bankosy malware has been adapted to beat this system of passcode delivery. The malware will simply forward the voice call to the attacker, unbeknown to the victim. This is possible because Android.Bankosy is capable of enabling silent mode on the phone so the user is not aware that a call is being received. If the attacker has the login credentials, a transaction can be initiated. The voice call is redirected to the attacker, and that code is then used to complete the transaction.
Over the past four weeks we have seen numerous cybersecurity predictions for 2016 issued by security firms. Security experts are trying to determine which part of the now incredibly broad threat landscape will be most favored by cybercriminals in 2016.
Some companies have made very specific cybersecurity predictions for 2016. They have come out with very bold claims, even predicting the presidential elections will be disrupted by a major cyberattack. Others believe 2015 will be broadly similar to 2015, with just an increase in ransomware attacks and even more massive data breaches suffered.
What all of the cybersecurity predictions for 2016 have in common is that the next 12 months are expected to be tough for security professionals.
The number and types of devices now connecting to corporate networks is broader than ever before. People are now far more likely to own and use three or more Internet-connected devices and use them on a regular basis. Alternative payment methods are being used more frequently. There is now more than ever to attack and too many devices and systems to keep secure. Unsurprisingly, no one appears to be claiming that 2016 will be easier than last year for cybersecurity professionals.
Cybersecurity predictions for 2016
The attack surface is now incredibly broad, but where are cybercriminals most likely to strike? This is what we think. Here are cybersecurity predictions for 2016.
IoT – expect attacks on the Internet of Things
Let’s start with a bold prediction. The IoT is likely to come under attack this year. I say bold, but that is only in terms of the timescale. IoT devices will be attacked, shut down, altered, remotely controlled, and used as a launchpad for attacks on other devices. If a device is constantly connected to the Internet, it will only be a matter of time before an attack takes place.
One problem with adding IoT technology is the manufacturers of the devices are not security experts. A washing machine that can be controlled via Wi-Fi or a Smartphone app, and can be switched on remotely while you are at work, has been designed first and foremost to wash clothes. It has then had IoT functionality bolted on. It has not been designed with security at the core of the design.
Surely a washing machine is not going to be used to attack a corporation you may say. Well, a Smart heating and air conditioning system was used to attack Target and gain access to the credit card numbers of its customers. Hackers are certainly looking at IoT devices and are probing for weaknesses. Security needs to be first rate, but unfortunately in many cases it is not.
Crypto-ransomware evolution will continue – Increase in ransomware attacks to be expected
Over the past 12 months crypto-ransomware attacks have increased significantly. Cybercriminals are now developing new malware capable of locking computers with powerful encryption.
The encryption cannot be cracked. The devices can only be unlocked using a security key. That key is held by the attackers. A ransom is demanded by cybercriminals and it must be paid before the key is released. Ransoms are demanded in Bitcoin because the currency is next to impossible to trace.
Developing crypto-ransomware is a lucrative business and that is unlikely to change any time soon. At present, ransomware is sent via mass spam email and the victims are not really targeted. The aim is to infect as many devices as possible. More infections equal more ransoms.
What we are likely to see over the course of the next 12 months is an increase in the ransom amount demanded and a more targeted approach adopted. Businesses are likely to be targeted and crypto-ransomware used to hold companies ransom. Companies are likely to be able to pay more than individuals.
We also expect ransomware to make the jump over to OS X, and to a lesser extent iOS. Cybercriminals would love to start charging Mac prices!
Apple owners to come under attack
That neatly leads us on to Apple. Users of Macs and iPhones have had it too good for too long. Hackers have not been too bothered about Mac users in the past, as there are greater rewards to be had from writing malware to target the masses. Consequently, the majority of malware targets Windows-based devices. Apple’s market share has been too small to warrant the development of Apple-specific malware. That is now changing.
Apple’s market share is increasing. As more people make the switch to Apple, it will be more lucrative for criminals to develop malware to target OS X devices. Over the course of the last year we have seen new malware created specifically for Apple devices. The volume is still small in comparison to malware that infects Windows-based devices, but we can expect Apple to come under attack in 2016.
Increase in memory resident malware
Hackers are getting better at obfuscation. They are developing ever more complex ways of hiding malware to evade detection. One of the main problems faced by malware authors comes from the fact that if a file is downloaded to a computer it can be found.
However, if malicious code is injected into the memory of a computer and no files downloaded, it is very difficult to detect. Memory-resident malware is more difficult for hackers to create, but many are now developing new fileless malware in order to evade detection for longer.
Until now memory-resident malware has been short-lived. It only survives until the device is rebooted. However, we are now seeing new forms that are simply reloaded into the memory when the computer is rebooted. We can expect to see even more memory-resident malware attacks in 2016 as the use of fileless malware grows.
Major healthcare industry attacks will take place
In 2015, cybercriminals targeted the healthcare industry with increased vigor. Massive data breaches were suffered, the likes of which the industry had never before seen. Anthem was attacked last year and 78.8 million healthcare records were stolen. An attack on Premera BlueCross exposed 11 million records, and Excellus suffered a 10-million record data breach. These massive cyberattacks used to be a rarity. In fact, up until 2014 the largest U.S. healthcare data breach affected just 4.9 million individuals.
The healthcare industry has been slow to implement new technology and many security weaknesses remain. They are now being exploited with increasing regularity. Since the value of data stored by health insurers and healthcare providers is so high, and the volumes of Social Security numbers, health data, and personal information so large, successful attacks can be extremely profitable. Where there is profit, and poor security there will be cyberattacks. These massive breaches will therefore continue in 2016.
Attacks on employees to increase in 2016
Employees are the weakest link in the security chain and hackers and cybercriminals are well aware of this. They target employees to gain access to corporate networks, with phishing one of the easiest ways to gain access to corporate data. These attacks have proved to be highly successful and have resulted in huge volumes of data being obtained by criminals. Some of the largest data breaches of the last two years have started with phishing campaigns. The attacks on Sony, Target, and Anthem for example.
Employers are getting better at blocking phishing emails and employees are now being trained to identify them, but these attacks will continue and will become more targeted and sophisticated.
As more employees work from home, we expect them to be targeted there instead of work. Their home computers and personal devices will be used to gain access to corporate networks. They tend to have more security weaknesses. Those weaknesses are likely to be exploited with increasing frequency.
Do you agree with our cybersecurity predictions for 2016? What do you think the biggest threat will be over the next 12 months?
Hackers have potentially gained access to the data of hundreds of thousands of Time Warner Cable customers. The Time Warner Cable security breach was discovered by the FBI, which tipped off TWC last week. Affected individuals are now in the process of being notified.
320,000 customers potentially affected by Time Warner Cable security breach
The Time Warner Cable security breach was announced on Wednesday last week. Scant information was initially provided to the media about the security breach and how customer data came to be stolen by cybercriminals.
According to a statement released by the company, there has been no indication that the company’s computer systems were compromised in a cyberattack, and customers have only been advised to change their passwords as a precaution. The company advised customers via email as well as direct mail that their email addresses and passwords may have been compromised.
Over the next few days, further information about the Time Warner Cable security breach was released. At first a statement said residential customers were affected across all markets. It later came to light that the data were stolen not from TWC, but from a third party who had access to customer information.
Investigations into the TWC data breach are continuing, but at this present moment it would appear that the Time Warner Cable security breach only affects Roadrunner email accounts (rr.com).
Customers have been directed to resources where they are provided with further information about how to identify a phishing attack. There is a possibility that affected individuals will be contacted via email by the data thieves in an attempt to obtain further information that can be used to commit identity theft or fraud.
However, what will be particularly worrying for the victims is not the possibility that they may be subjected to future phishing campaigns but what confidential information they have in their email accounts. Email accounts may contain highly sensitive information about an individual which, in the wrong hands, could be used to cause considerable harm.
The information in an email account could allow a cybercriminal to build up a highly detailed knowledge of an individual. That information could then be used to conduct a phishing campaign or cyberattack on that individual’s contacts.
Last year, Ping Identity conducted a survey on 1,000 enterprise employees in the United States and discovered that almost two thirds of respondents shared passwords between work and personal accounts. Data in personal email accounts could also potentially be used to conduct phishing campaigns on employees with a view to gaining access to their employer’s computer network.
As a precaution against fraudulent use of any information, all affected customers should change their email password promptly. It would also be a wise move for any individual who has a roadrunner email account to also change their password, even if a breach notice letter or email is not received.
TWC is America’s second largest cable company and serves 16 million customers across 29 states.
On December 31, 2015, the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) suffered a cyberattack which resulted in all of its websites being taken offline for a number of hours. A hacking group operating under the name “New World Hacking” has now claimed responsibility for the BBC DDoS Cyberattack.
BBC DDoS cyberattack conducted to test hacking group’s capabilities
The BBC was chosen not because of some vendetta against the broadcaster, but as a test of the power of the hacking groups servers ahead of planned attacks on ISIS. The hackers behind the BBC DDoS cyberattack did not actually intend on taking down the BBC websites, but it turned out that the servers being used for the attack proved to be “quite strong,” according to one member of the group who came forward.
‘Quite strong’ is something of an understatement. The BBC DDoS cyberattack was the largest ever recorded, with traffic up to 660 Gbps, which corresponds to many tens of thousands of connections. The hackers took down the BBC website using the Bangstresser tool, and used two nodes of attack and “a few extra dedicated servers.” Before the BBC DDoS cyberattack, the largest ever recorded was a 334 Gbps attack on an Asian network operator last year.
Attacks of this size are rare. Few manage more than 100 Gbps and when attacks of this magnitude occur they tend to be fairly short-lived, although while they are being conducted they can cause a substantial amount of damage. Many of the connections will be blocked by network filters, which are capable of identifying spoofed IP addresses, although by no means all. Attacks of this scale are likely to cause a serious amount of damage to enterprise networks.
In this case, the hacktivists were only testing capabilities and the motivation for the attack appears to have been made clear; however not all hackers conduct DDoS attacks to disrupt web services or take down servers. All too often a DDoS attack is conducted as a smokescreen to distract IT staff while the real mission is completed. One part of a network is attacked, while other members of the group attempt to gain access to other parts of the network and install backdoors for subsequent attacks or steal data. This was demonstrated recently by the attack on UK Broadband and mobile phone service provider TalkTalk.
Who are New World Hacking?
New World Hacking is an American group of 12 hackers – 8 men and 4 women – that was formed in 2012. The group has conducted numerous campaigns against terrorist organizations in the past, as well as on other groups and individuals that the hackers deem to be unpleasant or whose views or actions are contrary to the group’s beliefs.
New World Hacking has previously conducted large-scale DDoS attacks and has taken down websites run by members of the Ku Klux Klan, as well as websites depicting child pornography. Other targets include Donald Trump. That attack occurred at the same time as the BBC DDoS cyberattack and resulted in the presidential candidate’s website being taken offline for five hours. The group targeted Trump because of his recent “racist rhetoric.”
The group was also active after the recent Paris terrorist attacks and attempted to identify social media accounts used by ISIS.
The main target of New World Hacking is ISIS. The group is now planning to use its servers for attacks on ISIS websites, and those of ISIS supporters. The group claims to have a list of targets that it plans to attack in the very near future.
A member of the group going by the name of Ownz told the BBC “We realize sometimes what we do is not always the right choice, but without cyber hackers… who is there to fight off online terrorists?” The group aims to unmask ISIS, stop its spread, and end the propaganda.
Last month, President Barack Obama put his signature to an Omnibus spending bill of $1.1 trillion which contained the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015. The purpose of the act is to encourage the sharing of cybersecurity threat intel. The Obama administration believes this is essential in order for the country to win the war against cybercrime.
Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 signed into law
The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 is a compromise bill that was penned after previous attempts to introduce legislation to force private sector companies to share cybersecurity threat intelligence failed to make it past the House and Senate. Instead, the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 facilitates the voluntary sharing of intelligence by removing some of the legal obstacles that have previously got in the way of data sharing.
It has long been possible for private sector companies to share certain cybersecurity information with government organizations; however, many companies have failed to do so out of fear of legal action stemming from accidental antitrust violations and inadvertent violations of the private rights of individuals. There was also concern that some of the information required by the federal government could in fact be used against the organization sharing the information. Regulatory enforcement actions for example.
The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 offers private companies immunity from private and government lawsuits, along with other claims that could potentially result from the sharing of cybersecurity intelligence.
Sharing of cybersecurity intelligence and immunity from lawsuits
The new law allows any person or private group to share cybersecurity information with the federal government. That information includes cyber threat indicators – information that describes the attributes of a threat – and defensive measures. Defensive measures are defined as actions, devices, signatures, techniques, or procedures that “detects, prevents, or mitigates a known or suspected cybersecurity threat or security vulnerability.”
Before any information is shared with the federal government it must first be stripped of personal information relating to specific individuals or information that would allow specific individuals to be identified.
The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 allows companies to share intel primarily with the Department of Homeland Security, although a host of government agencies such as the Departments of Commerce, Energy, and Justice. The information would also be shared with the Department of Defense, which includes the NSA, as well as the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
The US Attorney General and Secretary of Homeland Security will prepare and publish guidelines to aid organizations with the identification of information that qualifies as a cyber threat indicator. Assistance will also be provided to help organizations identify the information that must be removed prior to sharing to avoid violating privacy laws.
Seven National Guard Cyberprotection teams will be set up and active by the start of 2020 to help deal with new cybersecurity threats. Those teams will be spread across 23 states and will be capable of rapidly mobilizing soldiers and airmen to assist U.S. Cyber Command.
It has been a long time coming, but Facebook has finally taken the decision to stop using Flash for video. The social media site is now using HTML5 for all videos served on the site. Facebook Flash video is no more, but Adobe Flash has not been totally abandoned yet, as it will still be used for Facebook games. Hackers can take some comfort from the fact that Farmville players will still be highly susceptible to attack.
Facebook Flash Video Retired to Improve User Experience
The move away from Facebook Flash video didn’t really require any explaining, although a statement released by Facebook said the move was required “to continue to innovate quickly and at scale, given Facebook’s large size and complex needs.” The move to HTML5 not only makes the social media site more secure, HTML5 improves the user experience. Videos play faster, there are fewer bugs, and HTML allows faster development. The social media network also plans to improve the user experience for the visually impaired using HTML5.
The move appears to have been welcomed by Facebook users. Since changing over to HTML5, users have added more videos, registered more likes, and are spending more time viewing videos.
The End of Adobe Flash is Nigh
Unfortunately, it is not quite so easy for the Internet to be totally rid of Flash. The video platform has been used for so long it is still a major part of the web. However, its 10-year reign is now coming to an end. Google Chrome stopped supporting Flash last year and Amazon also banned the use of Flash for video last year. YouTube made the switch from Adobe Flash to HTML5 and with without Facebook’s 8 billion video views a day no longer being served through Flash, the majority of web videos will now be viewed without Adobe’s platform.
Even Adobe appears to be trying to distance itself from its toxic product, having abandoned the name Flash in recent weeks. The company is attempting to deal with the huge number of zero day vulnerabilities as soon as they are discovered, and is patching them quickly, but it is fighting a losing battle. HTML5 provides everything that Flash offers in terms of functionality, minus the myriad of security holes.
Security Risk from Adobe Flash too High
Flash is well known for being a hackers dream as the software platform contains more holes than a sieve. Early last month a new patch was released to address 78 CVE-classified security vulnerabilities, 75 of which were totally separate. This, it has to be said, is an insane amount of security vulnerabilities to discover and address in a single patch. Adobe was quick to point out that it has not received reports of those vulnerabilities being used in the wild, but this has done little to address security fears about Flash.
The risk of drive-by malware attacks is simply too high with Flash. All it takes is for one malicious Flash based advert to be sneaked onto a site, and any visitor with a Flash browser plugin enabled could be automatically infected.
Even with the 78 vulnerabilities now addressed, Adobe Flash is far from secure. In fact, even the early December mega patch was not enough. Adobe was forced to issue yet another update on December 28 to address a number of new critical security vulnerabilities that had been uncovered. The total number of Flash security vulnerabilities addressed in 2015 is now estimated to be 316.
With YouTube ditching Flash and Facebook Flash video no more, the demise of Adobe Flash has surely been hastened.
The Superfish scandal discovered to affect purchasers of new Lenovo laptops last year showed that ad injection software poses considerable risks to users. Ad injection software risk cannot be easily managed. Even brand new laptops can come installed with software designed to deliver ads to users. Unfortunately, programs such as Superfish can also be used by hackers to conduct man-in-the-middle attacks.
Hackers can potentially exploit security vulnerabilities in ad injection software. In the case of Superfish, the software was pre-installed on Lenovo laptops. In order to serve ads, the software used a self-signed root certificate that generated certificates for secure HTTPS connections. The software substituted existing HTTPS certificates with its own in order to serve ads to users while they browsed the Internet. Unfortunately, if the password for ad injection software is discovered, as was the case with Superfish, HTTPS connections would no longer be secure. Hackers would be able to eavesdrop and steal user data.
Man-in-the-middle (MiTM) techniques are increasing being used to serve adverts while users browse the Internet, but the ad injection software risk of hackers taking advantage is considerable. The software is capable of network layer manipulation, injection by proxy, and can alter DNS settings. These techniques are used to serve adverts, but this is outside the control of the browser and the user. Since these programs can be manipulated and exploited by hackers they also pose a considerable security risk, and one that the user is unable to easily address.
Microsoft takes action to reduce ad injection software risk
The ad injection software risk is considerable, so much so that Microsoft is taking action to tackle the problem. By doing this, Microsoft will hand back choice to the user. The company has updated its criteria for determining what software qualifies as Adware, and has recently announced it will be taking action to reduce risk to users and prevent unwanted behavior by Adware.
Rather than the manufacturer of the equipment or developer of the Adware program dictating the browsing experience for users, Microsoft will be handing back control to the user. Microsoft’s policies now demand that “programs that create advertisements in browsers must only use the browsers’ supported extensibility model for installation, execution, disabling, and removal.”
Not only will Superfish-style programs be banned by Microsoft, by March 31, 2016 any programs that are detected will be detected and removed.
With Internet use increasing in schools the UK government has taken the decision to make school web filters mandatory. The government has previously recommended that schools implement web filtering solutions, although many schools have not taken action to curb and monitor Internet use in classrooms. Consequently, children are still able to access adult and other potentially damaging content.
The government is now going to get tougher on schools and will introduce legislation to force primary and secondary schools to filter online content. From September 2016, primary and secondary school children must also be educated about online safety.
How School Web Filters Make the Internet Safer for Kids
The main aim of mandatory school web filters is to prevent them from accessing online pornography at school and other potentially damaging content. The move will make it harder for religious extremists to radicalize children and it is hoped that the implementation of school web filters will help to reduce instances of cyber-bullying.
Some evidence has emerged that shows UK school children who have tried to leave the country, or have travelled to Syria, have been able to access information about Daesh/IS from school computers. Ministers believe that action must be taken to prevent such material from being viewed at school, but to also identify individuals who are attempting to access such material. Greater efforts can then be made to tackle the issue before it is too late. Children must also be educated more about how to stay safe when using social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram.
Proposals were published last week on the introduction of new measures to curb Internet usage in schools, which will include school web filters but also monitoring systems to identify individuals who are attempting to access illegal, dangerous, or inappropriate content. There is also concern that individuals will try to access the same material at home. To tackle that issue, the Department of Education has drafted new guidance for parents to help them keep their children safe at home.
School web filters will prevent all adult content from being accessed from any computer connected to a school network. Websites known to promote IS could also be blocked, along with other potentially harmful content. Children must be allowed Internet access at school as it is now an essential part of their education, but they must only be permitted to use the Internet responsibly. Greater efforts must be made to prevent children from being exploited, radicalized, groomed or recruited by extremists.
The new proposals are to be discussed over the next two months and a consultation will take place, after which the proposals will go to the vote. If adopted, enforcing school web filters will come under the remit of Ofsted.
Sky Implements Automatic Web Filtering to Block Online Pornography
School web filters are only one measure that is required to keep children safe. Protecting minors at home is another matter. Guidance can be given to parents, but that does not mean that all parents will read that information and take action to prevent inappropriate Internet usage at home. Sky Broadband is now planning to do its bit. From 2016, all new customers will be automatically prevented from accessing online pornography at home. New customers will be required to opt in rather than opt out if they want to view pornography. Any content with a rating of 13 years or above will also be automatically blocked until 9pm. At present, new customers are prompted to pick which elements of the Internet will be blocked by Sky web filters when they first access the internet.
Sky will also be backdating this new measure. A statement issued by Sky Broadband indicated this will be applied to all customers who have “joined since November 2013 and have not turned on Sky Broadband Shield”. According to Ofcom, only 30-40 percent of Sky customers have activated its web filter. Other broadband providers are being urged to follow suit. Currently only 6% of BT Broadband customers have implemented parental controls.
EU fines for privacy violations are likely to be issued to companies that fail to implement security measures to prevent their customers’ data from being stolen by cybercriminals. EU fines for privacy violations can be substantial, although the watchdogs that are able to issue them are limited. That is all about to change. The European Union has taken decisive action and will be penalizing companies that do too little to protect their customers.
EU fines for privacy violations apply to any company doing business in EU countries
Last week, negotiators met up in Strasbourg, France, and signed a new deal that will change data protection laws in the EU. It has taken some time for this update to take place, having first been discussed four years ago. There has been much debate about the level to which companies should be held responsible for data breaches, although finally all sides have come to an agreement that better protects consumers, make businesses more responsible, and will not interfere with efforts to bring cybercriminals to justice.
The changes to the law will ensure that more companies are held accountable for their lack of security controls. With the threat of cyberattacks increasing, and a number of major attacks suffered by companies over the past few years, an overhaul of data protection laws in Europe was long overdue.
Current legislation is somewhat patchy, offering limited protection for consumers. Companies in some industries can be fined up to 1 million Euros for privacy violations and the exposure of customer data, while others are allowed to escape without penalties.
The new EU fines for privacy violations will not have a fixed limit. Fines for businesses who are hacked or otherwise expose customer data will be as high as 4% of a company’s global annual sales. The aim of the new law change is to give companies a considerable incentive to invest in cybersecurity protections to keep their customers’ data secure, and improve consumer trust.
The law changes will also require companies doing business in any of the European Union’s 28 member states to disclose data breaches that have exposed consumer data. While privacy groups have welcomed the changes, business groups have not been quite so complimentary.
New EU fines for privacy violations to come into effect in 2018
According to EU Justice Commissioner Vera Jourova, “These new pan-European rules are good for citizens and good for businesses.” She also pointed out in a statement issued after the announcement of the conclusion of the negotiations that consumers and businesses stand to “profit from clear rules that are fit for the digital age, that give strong protection and at the same time create opportunities and encourage innovation.”
It will take a further two years for the new laws to come into effect, with the new EU fines for privacy violations expected to start being issued in 2018.
According to security researchers, the recently discovered Juniper Networks security flaw could have been created by the NSA to spy on Juniper Network customers. Others claim it is the work of a foreign government, although the NSA is still implicated.
Juniper Networks security flaw is a backdoor allowing customers’ information to be decrypted
Juniper Networks has discovered an external third party has inserted code into its software that could be used as a backdoor, potentially allowing hackers to decrypt secure communications and spy on customers’ data.
The networking equipment manufacturer’s corporate virtual private network (VPN) software was discovered to contain rogue code that allowed a security flaw to be exploited for the past three years. The Juniper Networks security flaw could have allowed the internal secure communications of customers to be viewed by hackers. The Juniper Networks security flaw would have allowed all VPN traffic to be monitored.
Juniper Networks security flaw now patched?
According to a statement released by Juniper Networks SVP and chief information officer, Bob Worrall, “Juniper discovered unauthorized code in ScreenOS that could allow a knowledgeable attacker to gain administrative access to NetScreen devices and to decrypt VPN connections.”
If a customer had communications intercepted they would likely to see a log file entry saying “system” had logged in and had a password authenticated. However, it has been proposed that an individual with the skill to insert the code and exploit the flaw would likely also be able to remove traces of a successful login attempt. Consequently, it is not possible to tell with any degree of certainty whether the Juniper Networks security flaw has actually been exploited.
That said, it would be odd for an individual or group of hackers to go to the trouble and expense of creating a sophisticated backdoor that allows secure communications to be monitored, and then not use it in the three years that it has existed.
A patch has now been released to tackle the issue and all customers have been advised to upgrade the software immediately. Whether the patch actually fixes the security flaw is debatable. Some suggest it does not tackle the vulnerability at all, and certainly does not entirely fix the problem.
Government agencies investigate: NSA implicated
The code insertion is being investigated by the FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and the White House National Security Council has also taken an interest.
Junipers’ clients include the U.S. Defense Department, FBI, Justice Department, and the U.S. Government. The sophisticated nature of the hack, together with the types of customers Juniper has, has led many to believe the code insertion is the work of foreign government-backed hackers.
However, not all security experts agree. Some believe that far from Russia, North Korea, or China being behind the hack, it could actually have come from within. Ralf-Philipp Weinmann, CEO of German security research company Comsecuris, has suggested that this could well be the work of the NSA.
He claims the Juniper Networks security flaw was a re-purposed decryption backdoor that had been inserted by the NSA more than a decade ago, albeit indirectly. The Dual_EC encryption algorithm that the NSA had lobbied to be included in encryption standards after discovering a flaw that could be exploited made the hack to be possible.
While the NSA could have inserted the code, even if it didn’t it could certainly have exploited it and used it to eavesdrop.
While the U.S. government, FBI, and others investigate and attention is focused on who may have been able to gain access to highly confidential U.S. data, it should be noted that the U.S. is not the only country that has many high profile customers using Juniper Networks ScreenOS firewalls. The firewalls are popular in Arab countries and the security flaw could have been used by the United States, Israel, UK, and others to eavesdrop on secret communications of Arab states.
A recently published 2015 security study has shown cyberattacks are pervasive and are likely to be suffered by virtually all organizations. However, IT security professionals have been taking proactive steps to reduce end user security risk and have also implemented better cybersecurity solutions to keep networks secure. Consequently, they feel much better able to deal with 2016 security threats.
New 2015 security study indicates 80% of organizations have suffered a security incident this year
Optimism appears to be high and many organizations believe they will be able to prevent security incidents from being suffered in 2016, which is great news. Unfortunately, that does not appear to have been the case this year. According to the Spiceworks study, 80% of respondents suffered a security incident in 2015.
Even though 8 out of ten organizations admitted to being attacked this year, they do feel they will be better able to deal with whatever 2016 has in store. Seven out of ten respondents said they would be better equipped to deal with cybersecurity attacks in 2016.
The reason for the optimism is an increased investment in both cybersecurity solutions and the provision of further training to members of staff. A more security conscious workforce means it will be much easier to prevent security breaches caused by malware infections, phishing attacks, and ransomware.
The study indicated that 51% of companies were attacked by malware this year, while 38% suffered phishing attacks. Ransomware is a cause for concern and threats have been reported extensively in the media, yet only 20% of companies actually suffered a ransomware infection.
Theft of corporate data only suffered by 5% of companies
There have been numerous reports of data breaches being suffered in 2015, and hackers have been able to steal corporate data and tens of millions of consumer records, yet the survey indicates only 5% of respondents actually suffered data theft this year. 12% of companies reported instances of password theft during 2015. That said, it is still a major cause of concern. 37% of respondents said they were still worried about the theft of data and passwords.
End user security risk main cause for concern among IT security professionals?
The study revealed what is keeping IT security professionals awake at night, and for the vast majority it is the threat posed by end users. IT security professionals can invest heavily in security defenses to keep hackers at bay, yet all the effort can be undone by the actions of a single employee. 48% of respondents were concerned about end users installing software on their work devices or the use of unauthorized technology. 80% claimed the biggest data security challenge was reducing end user security risk.
IT security pros also rated devices by the level of risk they posed to network security.
Riskiest network connected devices:
IoT Devices: 50%
Measures have been taken to reduce end user security risk
IT security professionals are well aware that it can be a nightmare preventing end users from doing stupid things that result in their devices and corporate networks being compromised. Fortunately, they have realized there is a very simple and effective proactive step that can be taken to reduce end user security risk. That is to provide staff with security training.
The IT department can implement a wide range of sophisticated defenses to prevent security incidents, but if end users install malware on the network, respond to a phishing campaign, or give their login credentials out to a scammer, it will all be for nothing.
Respondents realized there is no use complaining about the risk that end users pose. Action must be taken to reduce end user security risk. By providing training on current threats and network security risks, the staff can be empowered to take action to keep their network secure.
Training employees to be more security conscious and instructing them how to identify scams and avoid malware is a highly effective strategy for reducing network security risk. The study revealed that 73% of IT security professionals have enforced end user data security policies and regular end user security training is now being provided by 72% of IT security pros.
In the United States, healthcare phishing emails are being sent in increasing volume by cybercriminals looking for an easy entry point into insurance and healthcare providers’ networks. Healthcare employees are now being targeted with spear phishing emails as they are seen to be the weakest link in the security chain, resulting in HIPAA compliance breaches.
It is after all, much easier to gain entry to a healthcare network or EHR system if malware is installed by nurses, physicians, or administrative staff than it is to find and exploit server and browser security vulnerabilities. It is even easier if a member of staff can be convinced to divulge their email account or network login credentials. Hackers and cybercriminals are devising more sophisticated healthcare phishing emails for this purpose.
Clever healthcare phishing emails could fall any number of staff members
Even well trained IT security professionals have been fooled into responding to phishing scams, so what chance do busy physicians, nurses, and members of the billing department have of identifying healthcare phishing emails?
According to the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office for Civil Rights (OCR), employers will be held responsible if their staff fall for a phishing email, unless they have taken proactive steps to reduce the risk of that occurring.
This week, OCR announced it arrived at a settlement with University of Washington Medicine for a 90,000-record data breach that occurred as a result of staff falling for healthcare phishing emails. The settlement involved UWM paying OCR $750,000.
Small to medium-sized healthcare organizations could also be fined for members of staff accidentally installing malware. UWM may be able to cover such a substantial fine, but the average 1-10 physician practice would be unlikely to have that sort of spare cash available. Such a penalty could prove to be catastrophic.
Why was such a heavy fine issued?
The issue OCR had with UWM was not the fact that a data breach was suffered, but that insufficient efforts had been made to prevent the breach from occurring. U.S. healthcare legislation requires all healthcare organizations to conduct a comprehensive, organization-wide risk assessment to identify potential security vulnerabilities. In this case, University of Washington Medicine had not done this. A risk assessment was conducted, but it did not cover all subsidiaries of the organization, in particular, the medical center whose employee was fooled by the phishing email.
Healthcare phishing emails are such a major data security risk that efforts must be made to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Had a risk assessment been conducted, the phishing risk would have been identified, and action could have been taken to prevent the breach.
OCR would not expect organizations to always be able to prevent employees from responding to healthcare phishing emails. OCR does expect healthcare organizations to make an effort to reduce risk, such as advising staff members about the threat from healthcare phishing emails, in addition to providing basic data security training at the very least.
Addressing the data security risk from healthcare phishing emails
Since the risk of cyberattack via phishing emails is considerable, healthcare organizations of all sizes must take proactive steps to mitigate the risk of employees falling for the email scams. Staff members must be informed of the very real danger from phishing, and the extent to which cybercriminals are using the attack vector to compromise healthcare networks.
They must be told to be vigilant, as well as being instructed what to look for. Training on phishing email identification must be provided, and in order to satisfy auditors, a signature must be obtained from each member of stall to confirm that training has been received.
Staff members should also have their ability to identify healthcare phishing emails put to the test. They should be sent dummy phishing emails with email attachments and fake phishing links to see if they respond appropriately. If they respond incorrectly after training has been provided, further help with phishing email identification must be given. These processes should also be documented in case auditors come knocking.
Due to the considerable risk of a healthcare phishing attack, and the ease at which networks can be compromised, additional protections must also be employed. Small to medium-sized healthcare organizations that can ill afford a regulatory fine should make sure automated anti-phishing solutions are put in place.
These protections do not need to be expensive. There are cost effective solutions that can be employed that will reduce risk to a minimal and acceptable level. If training is provided and anti-phishing controls have been employed, OCR and other regulatory bodies would be less likely to fine an organization if a phishing-related data breach is suffered.
Deven McGraw, OCR Deputy Director for Health Information Privacy, recently pointed out that it is not possible to totally eliminate risk, but it is possible to reduce risk to an acceptable level. That is what OCR wants to see.
Automated solutions to reduce risk from healthcare phishing emails
To reduce the risk of members of staff responding to phishing campaigns, a powerful email spam solution must be implemented. Anti-spam solutions such as SpamTitan are cost-effective, easy to configure and maintain, and will block 99.98% of all spam emails. If phishing emails are not delivered, staff members cannot respond to them.
An anti-spam solution will not stop members of staff visiting malicious websites when surfing the Internet. Links to these malicious websites are often located in website adverts, on legitimate sites that have been hijacked by hackers, or contained in social media posts. To protect networks from these attack vectors, a web filtering solution should be employed.
WebTitan blocks users from visiting sites known to host malware. The anti-phishing solution can also be used to restrict Internet access to work-related websites. This will greatly reduce the risk from drive-by malware downloads and phishing websites.
Access rights can be configured on an organization-wide level to block malware-hosting sites. Group level privileges can be set to prevent social media networks from being accessed, for example. This control allows certain groups to have access to social media networks for work purposes, while reducing risk that comes from personal use. Individual access rights can also be set if required.
Provide training to the staff, block email spam and phishing emails from being delivered, and implement a web filter to manage web-borne risks, and not only will it be possible to keep networks and email accounts secure, heavy regulatory fines are likely to be avoided.
The latest data breach predictions by IDC analysts do not make for pleasant reading. If the data breach predictions turn out to be true, 1.5 billion individuals will be affected by data breaches in the next 5 years.
Companies being targeted by cybercriminals looking to steal consumer data
U.S. companies are being increasingly targeted by foreign cybercriminals. European businesses are similarly suffering more cyberattacks. In fact, companies all over the world are being attacked by criminals looking to gain access to consumer data. It is now no longer a case of whether a data breach will be suffered. It is now just a case of when a data breach will occur.
Companies must therefore be prepared. They must implement a host of security defenses to prevent cyberattacks from occurring, and need to make it harder for hackers and other cybercriminals to gain access to sensitive data. Failure to take action and implement multi-layered cybersecurity defenses will see a data breach suffered sooner rather than later. A breach response plan must also be devised to limit the damage caused when an attack is successful.
Data breach predictions for the next 5 years
The number of data breaches being suffered by companies all around the world has grown considerably in recent years, and the situation is unlikely to change. Based on the current levels of attacks, and the volume of data now being stolen by cybercriminals, IDC analysts made some bleak data breach predictions this month.
They expect that by the year 2020, a quarter of the world’s population will have had data exposed as a result of cyberattacks. That’s 1.5 billion individuals!
IDC also predicts that consumers will increasingly take action when their data are exposed. In fact, we are already seeing consumers boycott brands that have suffered major cyberattacks. Many consumers who previously shopped at Target for instance, have switched retailers following the massive data breach suffered in 2013.
In the UK, many consumers are switching broadband and mobile phone provider after TalkTalk was hacked by a group of teenagers this year. In the United States, there has been considerable fallout as a result of the massive data breaches suffered by Anthem Inc., and Premera Blue Cross. Customers have switched their health insurance to companies that they believe will take better care of their health data.
Data Breach predictions for healthcare organizations
Many cybercriminals have switched from targeting retailers for credit card data to healthcare providers and insurers for Social Security numbers and health information. The value of health data is much higher than credit card information. Once a credit card has been stolen, consumers rapidly shut down their accounts. Credit card companies are on the lookout for suspicious activity and block cards quickly. Healthcare data and Social Security numbers on the other hand can be used for months or even years before identity theft and fraud are discovered. Cybercriminals can use healthcare data and SSNs to defraud individuals and obtain tens of thousands of dollars before fraud is even detected.
The value of healthcare data, combined with the relatively poor defenses put in place by many healthcare organizations, has seen cybercriminal activity increase. The volume of healthcare data breaches has grown considerably over the past few years. Those data breaches are unlikely to stop in the foreseeable future. IDC’s healthcare data breach predictions for next year are bleak. Its analysts expect one in three Americans to have their healthcare data stolen in 2016.
113 million healthcare patients had their data exposed in 2015
The company’s data breach predictions are unlikely to be far off the mark. According to figures from the United States Department of Health and Human Services’ Office for Civil Rights, the agency charged with policing healthcare organizations, over 154 million healthcare patients and health insurance subscribers have had their healthcare data exposed since data breach reports were made public in 2009.
Almost 113 million of those healthcare records were exposed this year. That’s 73% of the total number of breach victims created in the last 7 years! If anything, IDC’s healthcare data breach predictions are overly conservative!
A Twitter cyberattack has prompted the social media network to issue warnings to some users of the social media site. It would appear that attackers have attempted to gain access to the accounts of a limited number of individuals, but those attacks do not appear to have resulted in a breach of user data.
Twitter cyberattack prompts warnings to be sent to site users
The warnings appear to have only been sent to certain United States based users of the website. The emails warn users that foreign government-backed hackers are targeting the site and are attempting to steal user data. According to the warnings, user account data is not believed to have been obtained and, if it has, only a small amount of personal data would have been revealed.
Twitter has offered some suggestions to any users that have been targeted to allow them to take action to reduce risk. They have been told they can switch to the Tor network to access their accounts, or it was suggested they tweet under a pseudonym.
It would appear that the attackers responsible for the Twitter cyberattack are attempting to get the phone numbers, email addresses, and IP addresses. It is conceivable that the individuals were targeted to allow the hackers to send out tweets from the users’ accounts.
The warning alerted users to a “small group of attackers” who are targeting the site. If another Twitter cyberattack is attempted, the social media site will send out a warning email to advise the affected party or parties of the attempted attack.
Latest Twitter cyberattack appears not to be random
The Twitter cyberattack appears to have targeted specific users of the website. The individuals and companies that the attackers have targeted are security experts or activists. Coldhak, a not-for-profit company dedicated to improving privacy, security, and freedom of speech, was one of the organizations that the hackers attacked.
Twitter is currently conducting a full investigation into the attempted hacking of Twitter accounts. The warning indicates that the social media microblogging platform is being ultra-cautious and is alerting users as a proactive step to prevent a breach of customer data, as well as reducing the potential damage caused by an attack.
Both Facebook and Google have recently sent out warnings to users of their services alerting them to suspicious account activity. Those warnings alerted users to activity by foreign government-backed hacking groups. It would appear that Twitter is taking a leaf out of their books.
This is not the first Twitter cyberattack of course. In February 2013, Twitter reset the passwords of 250,000 users after hackers compromised accounts and gained user names, passwords, and other sensitive data. In 2010, the social media site was attacked and Japanese users of the site were directed to porn websites when attempting to access their Twitter accounts.
According to the latest cybersecurity report from Osterman Research, retail industry cybersecurity risk is being seriously underestimated. There is false confidence in cybersecurity protections, and the risk of consumer and business data being exposed is considerable.
Assessing retail industry cybersecurity risk
The retail industry cybersecurity risk assessment was conducted on 125 large retailers during the month of November. The report indicates that even though security vulnerabilities have been identified, the retail industry is not taking the necessary steps to deal with those risks.
Many security holes remain unplugged. In particular, risks associated with temporary workers are not being dealt with. Retailers bring in temporary workers at busy times such as in the run up to Christmas. However, they are introducing a considerable amount of risk when the do so because they are not monitoring the activity of those workers effectively. Many actually believe they are – which is even more worrying.
Temporary workers are often provided with login credentials which are shared instead of giving each temporary worker a separate login. This eases the administrative burden on the IT department. Why create hundreds of new logins that will only be required for a short period of time? Simply give those workers low level privileges and any risk that is introduced will be minimal. Unfortunately, that may not necessarily be the case.
The study showed that 61% of temporary retail floor workers were using shared logins. It is not known whether this is a short cut taken and the risk is known, or whether retailers are unaware of the dangers that the activity involves. Even temporary workers must be given access to some data assets, yet it is impossible for some retailers to identify assets that each of those workers are accessing.
Furthermore, it is not only temporary workers that are being allowed to share login credentials. 21% of permanent workers are also sharing their login credentials.
Retail industry cybersecurity risk is being seriously underestimated
The research indicates that 62% of retailers believe they know everything their permanent workers are doing, and 50% claimed to know what data their temporary workers are accessing. Worryingly, when asked if their IT departments can identify specific systems that individual permanent employees have accessed, 92% said they could. This is clearly not the case in reality.
The study indicated that 70% of retailers gave access to corporate systems to permanent members of retail floor staff. 7% said that permanent workers had accessed systems they were not supposed to and 3% said temporary workers had done the same.
Those figures may actually be much higher as 14% of respondents didn’t know if their permanent workers had inappropriately accessed data. 26% couldn’t tell if their temporary workers were accessing data they shouldn’t. Given the potential gains to be made from gaining access to retail networks, criminals may even be tempted to take a holiday job simply to access to retail systems.
Security awareness training is also not being provided frequently enough. 60% of respondents only conducted training once or twice a year. If workers are not being kept abreast of the retail industry cybersecurity risk, they will not be able to take action to reduce that risk.
Even with the major data breaches and cyberattacks that have recently been suffered by major U.S. retailers, security vulnerabilities persist. Unfortunately, it would appear that retail IT professionals actually appear to believe they are doing a good job. If the measure of how well retail industry cybersecurity risk is being managed is whether or not a retailer has suffered a major data breach, then the industry is in pretty good shape. Unfortunately for the retail industry, if risk is not effectively managed, data breaches are likely to be suffered sooner rather than later.
Just over a month ago, researchers at Heimdal identified Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware; the latest incarnation of the nasty malware first discovered in September 2014. Since then, the malware has been further developed, with the third version discovered in January 2015.
Now, Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware is threatening consumers and businesses alike. The latest version of the malware is even sneakier and more difficult to detect, and its file encryption goes much further. To make matters worse, Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware has been packed into the Angler exploit kit, making it easier for the vicious malware to be downloaded to devices.
The Angler exploit kit takes advantage of vulnerabilities in browsers, making drive-by downloads possible. Any organization that has not installed the latest browser and plugin updates is at risk of having its files encrypted.
Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware – The malware keeps on evolving to evade detection
Last month, the Cyber Threat Alliance released new figures on the cost of Cryptowall infections. The criminals behind the malware have so far managed to extort $325 million from victims around the world. The latest version of the ransomware will see that extortion will continue. The bad news is, the latest version is likely to result in a much higher rate of infection. The money being ‘requested’ has also increased. Victims are no longer being asked for $300 to unlock their files. They are being urged to pay out $700 to unlock their files and keep their systems protected.
Victims are given less choice with the latest version of the malware. Not only will their files be encrypted, in order to make it harder for victims to restore encrypted files from backups, the latest version also encrypts filenames. The aim is to confuse victims even more. It is, after all, hard to restore files if you don’t know which files need to be restored.
Angler exploit kit used to infect computers with Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware
The Angler exploit kit is particularly nasty. First of all, it is not only Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware that will be installed. Visitors to malicious websites will have a host of malware installed on their computers. The network security threat is therefore considerable.
First of all, victims have to deal with Pony. Pony is installed and gallops around gathering information. It will steal login credentials and transmit the data back to the hacker’s command and control center. Attackers are looking for more than just a $700 ransom. What they are really after is access to content management systems and web servers.
A redirect will result in Angler being dropped, which will identify security vulnerabilities that can be exploited. Angler can incorporate new zero-day vulnerabilities and has been designed to be particularly difficult to detect. Angler will then install Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware.
Greater need to install a powerful web filter to prevent infection
Unfortunately, the use of the Angler exploit kit means end users do not need to download and install Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware manually – or open a malicious email attachment. Drive-by downloads will install the malware automatically if the user visits a website infected with malicious code.
Organizations can spread the news of the latest incarnation of Cryptowall to the workforce, and issue instructions to end users to instruct them to take greater care. However, since casual Internet surfing could result in computers being infected, greater protection is required.
Some end users will take risks and will ignore instructions. It is therefore a wise move to install software solutions to minimize the risk of infection by drive-by downloads. The cost of doing so will be much lower than the cost of dealing with multiple Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware infections.
WebTitan web filtering solutions are an ideal choice. They offer system administrators a host of powerful controls to prevent end users from visiting malicious websites and unwittingly infecting computers and networks. The software offers highly granular controls, allowing individuals or groups to have Internet access controlled. Protection against malware can be vastly improved without impacting critical business processes. WebTitan allows sys admins to block web adverts from being displayed, limit access to social media networks and certain website types, as well as sites known to contain malware and malicious code.
The inclusion of Cryptowall in the Angler exploit kit makes the installation of a web filtering solution less of an option and more of a necessity.
Essential security controls to reduce the risk of a Cryptowall 4.0 infection:
Conduct regular backups of your data – If you are infected, you must be able to restore all your files or you will have to pay the ransom.
Never store usernames and passwords on a computer – These can be read and transmitted to hackers.
Do not open unfamiliar email attachments – Even if an attachment looks safe, unless you are 100% sure of its authenticity, do not download or open it.
Install a spam filtering solution – make sure all email spam is quarantined and not opened.
Keep anti-virus solutions up to date – Virus definitions must be 100% up to date. Ensure that an AV solution is used that will detect Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware.
Install patches as soon as they are released – Your system must be kept up to date. It will be scanned for vulnerabilities that can be exploited.
The true cost of phishing attacks is difficult to calculate accurately, but the recent Target data breach settlement gives an indication of just how costly phishing attacks can be. The U.S. retailer has recently agreed to pay $39.4 million to resolve class-action claims made by banks and credit unions to recover the costs incurred as a result of the 2013 target data breach.
The claims were made to try to recover some of the cost of re-issuing credit and debit cards to the 40 million or so customers that had their data stolen by hackers. The banks were also required to issue refunds to customers whose credit or debit cards had been fraudulently used after the 2013 Target data breach.
The Target hack was financially motivated. The perpetrators of the crime sold data or fraudulently used credit card information and the personal details of customers. Approximately 110 million customers of Target may have suffered financial losses or had their identities stolen as a result of the 2013 Target data breach.
The settlement will see Mastercard retailers paid $19.11 million, while $20.25 million will be paid to credit unions and banks. This is not the only Target data breach settlement reached this year. The retailer agreed to pay Visa card issuers $67 million in the summer, bringing the total card issuer settlement to $106.4 million; more than the $100 million paid Visa and Mastercard issuers by Heartland Payment Systems Inc. Heartland suffered a massive data breach in 2008 that exposed 100-million+ credit card numbers. The company had to pay out around $140 million in total to resolve the breach.
The True Cost of Phishing Attacks
The settlement could have been considerably higher. Target’s figures suggest that approximately 40 million credit card numbers were stolen by hackers in 2013. The settlement is therefore lower than $1 per credit card number exposed.
In addition to paying $10 million to customers, Target also had to cover the cost of implementing a swathe of additional security measures after the cyberattack to prevent similar attacks from being suffered. One of the most expensive measures was the introduction of microchip-enabled card readers in its nationwide stores.
Then there was the damage to the company’s reputation. Many consumers have stopped using Target and have switched to other retailers. The total cost of the 2013 data breach may not be known for some months or years.
The 2013 Target data breach started with employees responding to phishing emails. Those employees did not even work for Target, at least not directly. The individuals who fell for the phishing scam worked for a contractor: an HVAC company used by the retailer.
Small to Medium Sized Businesses Face a High Risk of Phishing Attacks
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning subcontractor, Fazio Mechanical Services, was the company hackers used to gain access to Target’s network. Login credentials were stolen from the company that allowed the attackers an easy route into Target’s network.
Organizations often give limited network access to subcontractors to allow them to remotely access IT systems, either to perform maintenance, firmware or software upgrades, monitor performance, or check energy consumption and tweak systems.
If hackers can break through the defenses of the smaller companies, they can steal login credentials that will allow them to gain a foothold that can be used to attack the systems that subcontractors remote into. That is where the big prize is: a database containing hundreds of thousands – or even millions – of confidential records.
Don’t Cover the Cost of Phishing Attacks: Pay for Anti-Phishing Solutions!
Regardless of the size of your organization, it is essential to put protections in place to make it as hard as possible for hackers to penetrate defenses. Phishing is one of the commonest techniques used to steal login credentials, so it is therefore essential that controls are put in place to limit phishing risk.
Anti-phishing measures include anti-spam solutions that block phishing emails from being delivered to inboxes. If malicious attachments are identified and quarantined, less reliance is placed on staff to spot phishing campaigns. Not all attacks come via email. Malicious websites may be visited by employees and malware can be downloaded. Implementing a web filtering solution will help employers to manage phishing risk and prevent these websites from being visited by the staff. Malicious adverts can also be prevented from being displayed to employees. They are increasingly being used by hackers to direct people to phishing sites.
The cost of phishing attacks is considerable, but those attacks can often be blocked. It is much more cost-effective to implement anti-phishing solutions than to cover the cost of phishing attacks when they do occur; and occur they will.
Point of sale malware is not new. Cybercriminals have been using point of sale malware to steal credit card numbers from consumers for many years. Unfortunately for retailers, the threat of POS malware is growing. Highly sophisticated malware is being developed and used to obtain a wealth of information from retailers about their customers. That information is being used to commit identity theft and fraud. POS malware is also being used to obtain corporate data.
Point of Sale Malware – The biggest data security threat for retailers
Retailers are at risk of having point of malware installed throughout the year, but in the run up to Christmas the threat is greatest. It is the busiest time of year for shopping and hackers and other cybercriminals step up efforts to get their malware installed. Hackers are hoping for another big payoff before the year is out, and they are likely to get it.
Over the Thanksgiving weekend, some of the most sophisticated malware ever seen was discovered. In some cases, the point of sale malware had been blocked. Many retailers were not so lucky. Unfortunately, identifying malware once it has been installed can be incredibly difficult, especially with the latest ModPOS malware. It is already responsible for providing millions of credit card numbers to hackers, and has caused millions of dollars of damage. The full extent of the infection is not yet known due to the stealthy nature of this new malware.
ModPOS – The most worrying point of sale malware to be seen to date
The new malware has been named ModPOS – short for Modular Point of Sale malware – and it is particularly dangerous, stealthy, and fiendishly difficult to identify once installed. Security experts have been surprised at the level of sophistication. An incredible amount of skill was required to produce malware as complex as ModPOS. It shows the level that criminals will go in order to obtain data and avoid detection.
The malware has been developed to make it exceptionally difficult to identify, and it has clearly been designed with persistence in mind. Once installed, it can perform a wide range of functions; not only serving as a keylogger and card reader, but also a tool for network reconnaissance. It is not just large U.S. retailers that will be affected. This point of sale malware may be used to infect multiple targets. If protections are not put in place to prevent infection, the potential for damage is considerable.
Security analysts first saw elements of this POS malware three years ago, but it has been subsequently developed further. It is difficult to even estimate the extent of infection due to the nature of the malware. The level of obfuscation is impressive.
It has taken some of the world’s leading cybersecurity analysts a considerable amount of time to identify this point of sale malware, and even longer to reverse engineer it. It is, to put it simply, the most complex and sophisticated point of sale malware ever discovered. iSight Partners’ senior director Steve Ward has been reported as saying it is “POS malware on steroids.” ModPOS is the result of an extraordinary amount of time, money, and development. Every aspect of the malware has been painstakingly developed to avoid detection. Every kernel driver is effectively a rootkit.
Investment by criminals in this malware is unprecedented but, then again, the rewards for that investment are likely to be as well. If a major retailer is infected, and many will be, every one of their customers’ data could potentially be obtained. The potential gains for investors in the development of this malware are likely to be off the chart.
Highly functional malware that reads cards, steals corporate data, and much more
The malware can act as a keylogger, recording all data entered by employees. It will serve as a card scraper and will read the credit and debit card details of every customer who pays via point of sale systems. The malware will simply read the card details from the memory. Even EMV terminals may not offer protection.
Data are exfiltrated to hackers’ command and control centers, but it is not even clear what data are being transmitted. The malware encrypts each transmission twice, with 128 bit and 256-bit encryption. As if that wasn’t enough, the data of each customer require a different security key to decrypt them.
The shell code used is virtually a full program in itself. According to one iSight security expert, the shell code contained approximately 600 different functions. And that is just one piece. There are many more than one in this malware. All of the different modules operate in kernel mode, making them exceptionally difficult to identify. Furthermore, the malware is not being sold via darknet marketplaces. It is being kept secret and used by the criminal gang that paid for its development. The gang behind ModPOS has effectively paid for a license to print money.
The methods being used to distribute this point of sale malware are not known, and there is no fix for the threat actor. At the present time, there is a high risk of infection, and no single defense mechanism that can be employed to prevent an attack. So far, approximately 80 major retailers have been warned to be on high alert.
Reducing the risk of point of sale malware infections
Since the threat actor is not known, retailers and other organizations should be ultra-cautious and supplement their defenses to prevent attacks from being successful. Additional measures to enhance security include:
Conversion to EMV terminals – If data is not encrypted it can be read by the malware. The memory must also be encrypted, not only stored data.
Protect all systems, not just POS – The malware contains many modules, and its full capabilities are not fully known. It is not just credit card details that are at risk. All corporate data must be protected.
Implement email filtering solutions – The malware may be delivered via spam and bulk email. Infected attachments and phishing links may be used. It is essential that robust anti-spam solutions are implemented to prevent infection.
Web filtering is essential – The executable file responsible for installing the malware must not be downloaded to any device. Blocking known malware websites and potentially malicious website adverts will help to reduce the risk of ModPOS attacks.
Instruct staff to be highly vigilant – Regardless of the software systems used to improve security defenses, employees will always be a weak link. Staff should be trained and warned to be ultra-cautious, and instructed how to spot potentially malicious emails, websites, and phishing campaigns.
Kaspersky Lab has made a number of web security predictions for 2016, alerting IT security professionals to what the company’s security experts believe next year has in store. The company has listed some of the biggest security threats that are expected over the coming year.
Kaspersky Lab is one of the leading anti-virus and anti-malware software developers, and is a supplier of one of the two AV engines at the heart of WebTitan Web filtering solutions.
The Kaspersky web security predictions for 2016 include opinions gained from over 40 of the company’s leading experts around the globe. The web security predictions for 2016 can be used by IT professionals as a guide to where the next cyberattack could come from.
The Biggest Cyberattacks of 2014 and 2015
Last year saw numerous high profile attacks on some of the world’s best known brands. Around this time last year, Sony was hacked and its confidential data was posted online, causing much embarrassment and considerable financial loss. Some of the biggest names in retail in the U.S. were attacked in 2014 including Target and Home Depot.
The start of this year saw attention switch to health insurers. In February, Anthem Inc. was attacked. The records of 78.8 million insurance subscribers were stolen. News of a cyberattack at Premera BlueCross closely followed. 11 million subscriber records were compromised in that attack. Later in the year, Excellus BlueCross BlueShield discovered hackers had potentially stolen the records of approximately 10 million subscribers. Healthcare providers were also hit. UCLA Health System suffered a data breach that exposed the records of 4.5 million patients.
The U.S. Government was also targeted this year. The Office of Personnel Management was hacked and, while the perpetrators have not been identified, the attackers are believed to be government-backed hackers based in China. Over 22 million records were potentially stolen in that cyberattack. The IRS was also hacked and 300,000 individuals were affected.
37 million highly confidential records were obtained from internet dating website Ashley Maddison, and Hacking Team – a somewhat controversial provider of spyware – was also hacked. 40 GB of its data was dumped online for all to see.
Many of these attacks were highly sophisticated, but were made possible after employees fell for spear phishing emails.
Web Security Predictions for 2016
Hackers have been developing ever more sophisticated methods of breaking through security defenses to gain access to confidential data, to sabotage systems, or to hold companies and individuals to ransom by taking control of their data. Phishing and social engineering techniques are often used. While these are likely to continue, Kaspersky Lab experts believe hackers are likely to concentrate on stealthier techniques over the coming 12 months. The company’s experts believe there will be a growth in silent attacks that are difficult for security professionals to detect. The main web security predictions for 2016 are listed below:
APT Attacks to come to an end
Advanced Persistent Threats have proved popular with hackers, yet Kaspersky believe these attacks will soon come to an end. Instead, hackers are expected to conduct more drive-by attacks using stealthy memory-based malware. Memory based malware is not downloaded but resides in the memory where it cannot be easily detected. While the injection of malicious code into the RAM of a computer could only previously be used for short term infections, new techniques have been developed that are capable of surviving a reboot. These are likely to grow in popularity over the coming year.
Off-the-shelf malware use to increase
Rather than criminals paying hackers to develop new exploits, there is expected to be an increase in off-the-shelf malware attacks. Instead of developing new malware from scratch, existing malware will be used and tweaked to avoid detection. There is no need to reinvent the wheel when malware exists that can be used or rented out cheaply. The malware will just be made stealthier and more difficult to detect.
Alternative payment systems will be targeted
Financial cyberattacks will continue, and banks and financial institutions will be targeted. Expect a rise in attacks on alternative finance providers and payment systems such as AndroidPay, SamsungPay and ApplePay.
No end to extortion and mafia-style tactics
Not all hackers are motivated by money. Kaspersky has predicted a rise in the number of hacktivist attacks, which aim to shame the rich and famous. Attacks will continue to be conducted on companies that have caused offense. The attack on Ashley Madison and the 2014 hacking of Sony being good examples. Some hackers will use the threat of publishing data to extort money from victims, others will just be keen to sabotage companies. The use of ransomware is also expected to increase, with companies large and small targeted with increasing regularity.
Under normal circumstances the Amazon data breach risk is kept to a minimal level. The global online retailer is estimated to have generated $38.42 billion in gross profits between September 2014 and September 2015, and such deep pockets mean the company can invest heavily in cybersecurity protections.
With a company as large as Amazon, excellent data breach risk management strategies are essential. The company is a huge target for cybercriminals and a successful cyberattack has potential to make a dent in its profits. If customer data are obtained by criminals, those customers may choose to buy from an alternative retailer in the future.
Amazon data breach risk discovered in time to prevent a successful hack?
This week, a security scare has forced the company to reset some users’ passwords. It is not clear whether a data breach has actually been suffered, but the retailer certainly believes the risk to be credible as Amazon passwords were not requested to be changed. The company forced a reset.
Amazon.com announced that this was “a precautionary measure” to prevent a cyberattack from occurring. The company believes passwords were “improperly stored” or had been transmitted to the company using a method that could “potentially expose [the password] to a third party.”
The company has sent emails to all affected account holders advising them that they will need to specify a new password when then next login. No announcement was made about the number of users affected.
This is not the first time that Amazon has had a major security scare. In 2010, hackers managed to break through its security defenses and compromised a number of user’s passwords. In that instance, users were warned that their accounts had been compromised.
The Amazon data breach scare could affect more than just your Amazon account
It is not clear whether passwords were actually obtained by a third party. Because of the doubt surrounding the reason for the forced change, any individual that receives an email telling them their password has been reset should also change their passwords on all other online accounts if the accounts can be accessed using the same password.
Many consumers share passwords across multiple platforms, but password sharing is inadvisable. Many online accounts use an email address as the login name. If a password is shared across platforms, one data breach could result in all user accounts being compromised.
Amazon data breach risk management: Two-factor authentication now added
One of the easiest ways to improve protection is to introduce two-factor authentication. Many companies only insist on one factor to authenticate users: A password. Two-factor authentication involves an additional element to verify that the person attempting access is the genuine account holder.
Many global companies have now introduced two-factor authentication; although some have only done this recently. In some cases, the additional security measure was deemed necessary after a data breach was suffered. Twitter being one of the best examples. Google uses two factor authentication for its accounts, as does Facebook. This month, Amazon data breach risk management policies were changed to include two-factor authentication on user accounts. It is not clear why it took the company so long to introduce this enhanced security measure. All users should add it, especially in light of this recent security scare.
You would think that a brand new computer would be secure, aside from requiring a few updates to software after being taken out of the box, but a Dell root certificate security flaw means even brand new Dell laptop computer could be compromised within seconds of being connected to the Internet. Understandably, corporate customers and consumers alike are in uproar over the eDellRoot certificate security flaw that was recently discovered.
The security flaw was revealed by Dell as part of the company’s remote assistance support service. In order for Dell to “streamline” support for users, the company installed a self-signed root certificate on at least two models of Dell laptop computers – the Inspiron 5000 series and the company’s XPS 15 laptop.
Unfortunately, the root certificate is installed in the Windows root store along with the certificate’s private key. Any individual with a modicum of technical skill could obtain the key and use it to sign fake SSL/TLS certificates. In fact, the key is publicly available on the internet so it is easy to obtain. This means that anyone using one of the aforementioned Dell laptops could visit a HTTPS-enabled website in the belief that the connection is secure, when in fact it may not be.
It would be possible for hackers to view data shared between the secure website and the Dell laptop. If the laptop is used to access a banking website via an open Wi-Fi network or the Internet is accessed via a hacked router, someone could listen in on that connection. Users could compromise their personal bank account information, passwords, or login credentials used to access their employer’s network.
Any company that has purchased either of the above Dell laptops could potentially be placing their entire network at risk. If a BYOD is in operation, personal Dell laptops are a huge risk to data security.
Not only could hackers eavesdrop on secure internet connections, it is possible that the Dell root certificate security flaw could be used to install malware on devices undetected. Since the certificate can be faked, it is possible that system drivers or software could be installed which fool the operating system into thinking they have come from a trusted developer. Even if a warning is issued, users may think it is safe to install a program because it appears to have been created by Dell.
Dell desktops, servers, and other laptops may contain the Dell root certificate security flaw
The extent of the problem is currently unclear, but the Dell root certificate security flaw may not be confined to two specific laptop models. All laptops, servers, and desktops sold by Dell could potentially be affected. The eDellRoot certificate is installed by Dell Foundation Services (DFS) and the application is not confined to the Inspiron 5000 and XPS 15 laptops. According to one source, the security flaw has also been found on the Dell Venue Pro. Dell says the root certificate was only installed on hardware since August 2015.
A few days after the discovery of the Dell root certificate flaw, another one was discovered by Duo Security. This certificate was only present on a small number of systems around the world, although that Dell root certificate was discovered on a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system.
It doesn’t end there. A third has been discovered. The DSDTestProvider certificate is installed by an application called Dell System Detect or DSD. This is not shipped with Dell hardware. Instead it is downloaded onto computers and laptops by users. If they visit the Dell support website they are asked to install the detection tool.
Dell Root Certificate Security Fix Released
Users are able to remove the eDellRoot certificate using a tool that has hastily been released by Dell. However, at the time of writing, there is no tool to remove the DSDTestProvider certificate. Any user of a Dell computer, server, or laptop should therefore keep up to date with eDellRoot and DSDTestProvider news and should check the Dell support website frequently for further information.
Extreme caution should be exercised when accessing apparently secure websites, and users should not access secure sites from open Wi-Fi networks until the Dell root certificate security flaw has been fixed.
According to ARS, security expert Kenn White was able to use the publicly available security key to create a secure HTTPS test site using the certificate. When he visited the site it flagged no warnings that the certificate could not be trusted when he used Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, and Google Chrome browsers. The only browser that recognized the certificate as being suspect was Firefox.
Are you prepared for the official start of Christmas shopping season? Will you be starting your Xmas shopping on Black Friday? If you can’t resist a bargain, and can’t wait until Cyber Monday, take care! There are many fake Black Friday deals being advertised and you may end up becoming a victim of an online scam.
Fake Black Friday deals aplenty
Black Friday follows Thanksgiving Day in the United States, and it officially marks the first day of the Christmas shopping season. It is also a day when online criminals try to take advantage of Christmas shoppers. There will be plenty of genuine bargains, as Black Friday discounts are offered by most major retailers. Unfortunately for shoppers, there are plenty of fake Black Friday deals being advertised online. Picking out the real deals from the fake ones is not quite as easy as it used to be. Scammers are getting good at creating highly realistic offers and fake websites. Furthermore, scammers are getting sneaky and have launched fake Android Apps, and are now sending texts containing phishing links and fake phone lines.
Fake Amazon app will steal your passwords, make calls, and send texts
One of the scams already being sent offers a golden opportunity: The chance to beat the online crowds and grab a bargain before everyone else. Download this app and you will get to the front of the virtual queue and get all the Amazon Black Friday deals, days early.
Instead of launching an Amazon app when you start it, after downloading the fake Amazon app it will launch an app called com.android.engine. If you grant permission, as many people who download the app will, you give the app permission to view virtually everything on your phone, make calls, send texts, and see the data you enter via your phone. Deleting the app will make no difference. To avoid this scam and others like it, only download apps from Google Play store; never from third party sites.
Beware of texts warning of suspicious account activity
Scammers may love email to deliver phishing links and malware-ridden attachments via email, but some are now resorting to text messages. Texts are sent warning of a security breach, account hack, or other need to call a support line. The number provided will be answered by a scammer who will attempt to relieve you of your credit card information or bank account details, or will attempt to gather information that can be used in a future phishing attack.
Fake stores offering fake Black Friday deals
Social media websites advertise amazing discounts and many fake Black Friday deals. Spam emails are sent in the millions with fantastic “too good to be true” offers. Many of these are fake Black Friday deals designed to get you to part with your credit card number. When browsing the Internet, you may have pop-up adverts appear with links to these websites or they may appear in Ad blocks on legitimate websites.
Some of these adverts will direct you to online stores that you may never have heard of; yet the discounts do tempt many visitors to make a purchase. Any goods ordered will not be received and credit cards will be charged repeatedly.
Before making any purchase, take a few minutes to verify the company’s identity, address, and location. Don’t be afraid to give the store a call. It is better to be safe than sorry.
Your order can’t be delivered
Next week you may receive an email telling you your order cannot be delivered. Your purchases are unlikely to be specified in the email, only a link to the delivery company’s website. You will be asked to make alternative arrangements to collect your order or provide an alternative date when you will be home.
The links direct users to phishing websites aimed at getting visitors to divulge sensitive information. Delivery receipts and invoices are also sent via email. These contain malware, and opening the files will see your computer compromised. Be especially wary of PDF files, JPEGs, ZIP, and EXE files. Many file attachments have the suffixes masked to fool users into opening them. They contain malware such as keyloggers, or will allow hackers to take control of your device.
Only make purchases from stores offering a secure HTTPS connection
To avoid phishing and other malicious websites, use your common sense. If a deal sounds too good to be true it probably is. Before you make a purchase, check the website has a padlock next to the URL and the web address starts with HTTPS.
This is not a guarantee that the website is genuine, as security certificates can be faked. But it will give you a better idea if the website can be trusted. Also never make any purchase while connected to the Internet via an open Wi-Fi network. You never know who might be eavesdropping on your session.
If you want to protect against fake Black Friday deals, or keep your work network secure and free from malware, consider installing a web filtering solution. It will take the guesswork out of online purchases, and will block phishing websites, popups, and malicious adverts. Coupled with an anti-spam solution to catch malicious emails, you will be better protected from online scammers and cyberattacks.
Online shoppers now have the option of using Amazon two-factor authentication on their accounts to improve security. Any users concerned about the number of cyberattacks being suffered by large retailers should take advantage of the new security measure and add Amazon two-factor authentication to their Amazon account at the earliest possible opportunity.
It is not clear exactly when the retail giant implemented the new security feature, as an announcement was not made; however, some users started to notice the option this week. At the present moment in time it is not a mandatory security measure to use, but it is strongly advisable to add it to your account.
Large retailers are big targets for cybercriminals. Retailers such as Amazon may have invested millions or even hundreds of millions in data security solutions and cybersecurity protections, but no company is impervious to attack. One thing that is certain is a great many cybercriminals will attempt to break through Amazon cybersecurity defenses. The company’s colossal database of customer information would be a sizeable reward for all the effort. The retail giant has an estimated 244 million customers. 244 million credit card numbers could be sold for a considerable sum of money.
It would be nice to live in a world where it is impossible to be hacked or have one’s account details compromised. Unfortunately, but there is no such thing as a 100% secure account because no system is totally foolproof. Two-factor authentication does however get pretty close and, even better, it is easy for companies to implement and straightforward for customers to activate.
Most of the global retailers and major internet brands use two-factor authentication for user accounts; although for some reason (only known to Amazon) the retail giant has refrained from adding this additional security measure until now. It is not a mandatory security measure and will not be added to accounts automatically. If users want enhanced account security, they can access their account settings and turn it on.
How to Add Amazon two-factor authentication to your account
Making your Amazon account more secure is a simple process. You will need to login to your account and access your account settings. The option is located in the “Your Account” dropdown menu in the upper right hand side of your screen. You will need to scroll to the “Change Account Settings” option, and at the bottom of the list click on “Edit” to the right of the “Advanced Account Settings” section.
You will be directed to the Amazon two-step authentication page. You just need to click on the “get started” option. If you enter your mobile phone number, you will be sent a code which will need to be added into your account settings. Once this has been done, no one other than yourself will be able to access your account even if your password is compromised. Unless a criminal also has your phone of course.
Retailers are being attacked with increasing regularity, so this additional security measure is strongly recommended. Target was targeted, Home Depot was hacked, and Amazon may well be the next major retailer to suffer a significant data breach. This additional security control will offer greater protection.
If a user in your organization accidentally installs keylogging malware onto his or her computer, every keystroke entered on that computer – including login names and passwords – could be sent directly to hackers’ command and control servers.
This nightmare scenario could involve the exposure of a limited amount of sensitive data; however, if the malware has been installed on multiple computers, and the infections have not been discovered for a number of days or weeks, a considerable amount of data could be obtained by criminals.
Keylogging malware infection discovered by OH Muhlenberg Community Hospital
A hospital in Kentucky recently discovered that not only have multiple computers been infected with keylogging malware, those infections occurred in 2012. For three years, every keystroke entered on each of those computers was recorded and transmitted to the hackers responsible for the attack.
The computers in question were used by healthcare providers, employees, and contractors. Due to the length of time the computers were infected, it is not even possible to ascertain the data that may have been exposed and copied. Patient health information was entered, Social security numbers, health insurance information and other highly sensitive Protected Health Information. Providers would have entered their Drug Enforcement Administration numbers, state license numbers, National Provider Identifiers and other sensitive data.
Employees who logged into healthcare systems using the computers, could have had their login credentials recorded. Access to web services similarly would have involved credentials being compromised.
Such an extensive, long term keylogging malware infection could place many patients at risk of suffering identity theft or fraud, and physicians could have their identities stolen. Criminals could have used the data to commit medical fraud, insurance fraud or file false tax returns. The fallout from this cyberattack could therefore be considerable, and may cost the hospital dearly.
The danger of keylogging malware
Once keylogging malware has been installed on a computer, any data entered via the keyboard can be recorded. That information is then exfiltrated to a hacker’s server until communications with unauthorized IP addresses is blocked. In the case of the hospital, the malware was only discovered after a tip-off was received by the FBI. Agents had noticed suspicious communications between the hospital and third party servers. When the alert was issued and a security audit performed, a number of computers were discovered to have been infected.
Even when cybersecurity protections are installed, it is unfortunately all too easy for these to be bypassed. All it takes is for one user to inadvertently install malware. In the majority of cases, this action will not be noticed by the person responsible. No warning is issued about a potential infection and no flags raised by anti-virus software.
How are keyloggers installed on computers?
How can a hospital that has invested in cybersecurity defenses be attacked and fail to notice for three years? If regular scans of the hospital’s computers had been conducted, the infections may have been identified sooner. However, not all keylogging malware is easy to detect. Hackers are developing ever more sophisticated malware that is capable of evading detection.
There are a number of ways the malware could have been installed without being detected by anti-virus and anti-malware software. Since multiple computers were infected, it suggests that either an insider had installed the keylogging malware on multiple machines, via a USB for instance, or that multiple members of staff had fallen for a phishing campaign.
Phishing emails are sent out in the millions in the hope that some individuals will respond and download malware. Multiple infections suggest that an organization has been targeted using spear phishing emails. These are emails that are sent to a particular group of individuals within an organization. The subjects are researched and links to malicious websites are sent that are likely to entice the users to click. They are then directed to websites containing malicious code that installs files on their computers. Keylogging malware can also be installed via infected email attachments.
By targeting users, hackers and other cybercriminals are able to bypass robust security controls. Users are the weakest link, and it is far easier to target them than break through multi-million-dollar security defenses.
Cost-effective protection against phishing emails and malicious websites
There are two cost-effective solutions that can prevent staff members falling for phishing campaigns that install keylogging malware. The first works by ensuring phishing emails are never delivered to an organization’s employees. If the emails are blocked and are not delivered, they will not be able to respond. A powerful anti-spam solution will catch the vast majority of spam and phishing emails. In the case of SpamTitan, over 99.7% of spam emails will be captured.
Since hackers and spammers are constantly changing their tactics, and new malware is continually being developed, it is not possible for all spam emails to be captured 100% of the time. Occasionally, even the most powerful Anti-Spam software will miss the occasional email.
To ensure staff members do not respond to a request to visit a malicious website or open a malware-infected email attachment, it is essential to provide training. Training will help end users to identify the occasional spam email that sneaks past a spam filter.
An anti-spam solution will not prevent a user from clicking on a social media link to a malicious website. Ad networks can similarly contain links to malicious sites. Clicking on one of those links could result in keylogging malware being downloaded.
The second cost-effective solution to offer protection from phishing websites is web filtering software. A web filter can be implemented that will prevent adverts from being displayed or potentially harmful websites from being visited. WebTitan offers these protections and will keep end users safe when surfing the Internet. If end users cannot visit phishing websites and other dangerous sites, they will be prevented from inadvertently installing malware.
Alongside other cybersecurity protections, and the development of internal policies covering internet and email usage, organizations can reduce the probability that a cyberattack will be successful. If regular malware and virus scans are also conducted, when computers are infected, the severity of the security breach will be reduced.
In order to manage cybersecurity risk effectively, data protection policies must be developed. However, a new research study conducted by risk and business consulting firm Protiviti, suggests that a third of companies have not yet developed data protection policies. When data protection policies have been implemented, many are insufficient and leave the company vulnerable to a cyberattack.
Data protection policies are inadequate or non-existent in many cases
Over 700 information security professionals and executives were polled and asked about their company’s efforts to keep data secure. Questions were asked about data retention, storage and secure disposal, as well as governance, privacy policies and a wide range of cybersecurity controls. It would appear that many firms were not managing cybersecurity risk effectively, leaving them vulnerable.
Information security solutions may have been implemented, but basic controls such as the development and issuing of data protection policies had been neglected. When policies had been written and implemented, many were insufficient and did not cover even a fraction of the elements necessary to keep systems and data secure. Many security holes were allowed to persist.
To manage cybersecurity risk, start at the top
The board must become involved in cybersecurity decisions and should take a greater interest in keeping their organizations secure. Policies must be developed that set rules for the entire organization, and awareness of data and network security must be improved. All members of staff must be made aware of the current threat levels and a culture of security awareness developed. Best practices must be defined and all users monitored to make sure that those practices are being followed.
The study indicates that board level involvement in cybersecurity issues is becoming more common, yet only 28% of survey respondents indicated there was a current high level of board engagement in such issues. What is even more worrying is there has actually been a fall of 2% in high-level engagement year on year. 15% of respondents said board engagement in cybersecurity matters was low, while a third said engagement was at a medium level, better than in previous years.
You must identify the most critical assets to effectively manage cybersecurity risk
In order to protect assets, they must first be identified. This may sound obvious, but many companies are unsure what their critical assets are according to the study. A number of companies had failed to identify the data that cybercriminals were most likely to try to obtain. Appropriate protections were therefore not being put in place to keep the most sensitive data secure.
Confidence in repelling cyberattacks is low
The majority of organizations are not particularly confident that a targeted attack could be repelled, even though cybersecurity protections had been put in place. Companies were believed to be better at protecting their assets and keeping sensitive data secure than in recent years, although considerable efforts still need to be made.
According to the researchers, a lack of confidence is actually good news, as it should spur companies to keep on developing their security protections.
Think you have to open an infected email attachment or download a file to your computer to acquire a malware infection? Not with the latest memory based malware. Drive-by attacks are taking place that do not need any user-interaction. These file-less malware infections use malware that resides in the computer memory, and RAM memory is not scanned by most anti-virus programs.
The good news is attacks of this nature are rare. The bad news is the malware is being increasingly used by cybercriminals.
Fortunately, malware that resides in the memory doesn’t survive a reboot. Unfortunately, by the time your computer is rebooted, you may have already lost your sensitive data. How often do you reboot? At the end of your working day? That could potentially give a hacker a full 8 hours to record your keystrokes or download files to your computer. A lot of damage can be done in 8 hours.
There is another problem. Hackers are now creating memory-based malware that actually survives a reboot. The malware has been configured to hook into an API. When the computer is restarted, the malware is reloaded back into the RAM.
Memory-based malware exploits security vulnerabilities in outdated software
If a user is convinced to visit a malicious website, or responds to a spam email containing a link to one of those sites as part of a phishing campaign, their computer can be infected almost immediately. A user is usually directed to a web page containing an exploit kit: The Angler exploit kit for example. Code on the website probes the users’ browser for security vulnerabilities. Security vulnerabilities in Adobe Flash or Adobe Reader could be exploited, or Java, Silverlight or any number of plug-ins that the user has installed.
However, instead of the vulnerability being used to download a file to the hard drive, code is inserted into the memory. This does not trigger an Anti-Virus program because no files are downloaded to the computer. This allows the hacker to perform a drive-by cyberattack, stealing information quickly and silently. That information could include login names, passwords, bank account information, or anything entered via the keyboard.
These types of cyberattacks are not new. They have been possible for a long time, but cybercriminals have not favored memory based malware. Unfortunately, memory based malware is being used in exploit kits that are widely available online.
Sometimes a fast and stealthy attack is preferable to a long-term malware infection. If the aim is to avoid detection at all costs, then this is one of the easiest ways to gather intel or data without setting off any alarms. High-profile targets such as governments could be targeted, and they would be none the wiser as next to no trace of an attack is left by memory based malware.
Is an attack inevitable? Can nothing be done to prevent the installation of memory based malware?
The solution is not anti-virus software, but to prevent users from visiting a website that contains the exploit kit. It may not be possible to prevent a drive-by attack once a malicious site has been visited, but it is possible to avoid visiting that site in the first place. Hackers must still direct a user to the malicious site in order for an attack to be possible. There must also be security vulnerabilities in the browser that can be exploited.
To protect your computer from memory-based malware, you must ensure that your web browser and software are kept up to date with the latest security patches. As for avoiding malicious websites that contain the exploit, a web filtering solution should be used. A web filter can block users from visiting malicious sites, or from web ads from being displayed. Website adverts are often used as a method of getting users to visit a malicious website.
Phishing and spam emails containing links to malicious sites can be prevented from being delivered using a powerful spam filtering solution. SpamTitan Technologies offers both solutions. SpamTitan Anti-Spam software protects users by blocking spam emails from being delivered, while WebTitan software can be configured to prevent users from visiting malicious websites.
The threat landscape may be constantly changing, and new exploits used to compromise computers and steal data, but fortunately the risk can be effectively managed.
Using a Mac is safer than using a computer running Windows. That’s not to say it is not possible to inadvertently install a virus or malware on a Mac. It is just that hackers tend to focus more on PCs. From a hacker’s perspective, it is better to try to infect as many devices as possible and more people own PCs than Apple devices.
According to research conducted by IDC, sales of Macs have increased by just over 16% this year. However, while accurate figures are difficult to find, approximately 90% of computers use Windows software. This makes the operating system much more likely to be attacked. If you were a hacker would you concentrate on the 90%?
That does not mean that Mac users are immune to attack: BlackHole RAT, OS X Pinhead, Mac Flashback, and Mac Defender all targeted Mac users.
Mac users do face risks and must be cautious when using the Internet. They may not face such high risks, but they can just as easily fall for scams. Phishing websites will also work just as well on Macs users as they will on everyone else. That’s because phishing techniques are employed to fool the user of the device. It doesn’t matter what device is being used to access the Internet.
New phishing scam alerts iTunes users to account limitations
Mac users have recently been targeted by a campaign claiming iTunes accounts have been compromised. Most recently a phishing scam has been launched advising iTunes account holders that their accounts have been limited for security reasons.
They are informed of this by email and are provided with a link. If the link is clicked they are directed to a scam site and must enter information to lift the account limitation. A number of data fields must be completed and a credit card number entered.
This is an easy scam to identify as, even when accounts have been compromised, a service provider would not typically ask for a credit card number for identity verification.
If in doubt, just access your Apple account directly and check to see if there is a problem with your account. Never use the link supplied in an email.
Mac Internet scam reported offering urgent tech support
A Mac internet scam warning was recently issued after the discovery of a new tech support scam. A woman visited a webpage which flashed a warning that her Mac had been infected with malware. She was required to call a phone number to call to speak with tech support. On calling the number she was told she was speaking to an Apple employee, and she was required to pay for tech support to remove the infection. When asked for payment she tried to pay by AMEX, but was told American Express could not be used. This alerted her to the scam. Apple doesn’t have a problem taking AMEX as payment.
If you are warned of a virus infection, you can always visit an Apple store. They will be able to confirm if your Mac has really been infected.
Mac Internet scam warning! Your Mac is Infected with Malware!
Phishing scams targeting Mac users are far more common than malware infections targeting their devices, but malware is always a risk no matter what device is used. However, this year Apple has been targeted. A Mac Internet scam warning was issued earlier this year, again relating to Mac malware infections.
The scam is common with PC users, especially those using illegal file sharing websites, streaming services, and porn sites. However, a number of legitimate websites have been hijacked and are displaying pop-up windows announcing a virus infection has been detected.
The warnings come as a shock to Mac users and many will be convinced to click on the links. They direct the user to malicious websites offering fast and effective disinfection using Anti-Virus/Anti-Malware solutions. A click of a link will download a program called MacDefender that will conduct a full system scan.
The MacDefender Anti-Virus program is nothing of the sort. Instead of removing malware from the Mac, it is a form of malware. The fake Anti-Virus software appears to conduct a scan of the system and identifies apps that have been infected. Popup windows are launched to porn sites and other websites as a scare tactic.
In order to remove the infections, the user is required to purchase a license for the software. To do that a credit card is required. Once the license has been purchased the program stops launching browser windows. It also advises the user that the malware has been removed.
Unfortunately for the victim, they have just given their credit card details to the scammers. Card purchase can be made and the criminals can run up thousands of dollars of debt.
No matter what device you use to access the Internet or email, you are always at risk of falling for a phishing scam or inadvertently installing malware. Fortunately, the risk can be easily managed. WebTitan is available for Windows and OS X, and offers protection from malware, malicious websites and phishing campaigns.
To find out how WebTitan can protect you and your company’s employees, call the sales support team today.