Reports of Internet users that have been caught out by email scams continue to increase. Whether it is drivers being told to pay speeding fines via a link on an email, or Facebook users being advised that they have violated the terms of their account, innocent victims continue to be ripped off by cybercriminals using email scams.
Business email compromise scams are also reported to have increased. These email scams involve the cybercriminal gaining access to a corporate email account – such as that of the CEO. An email is then sent apparently from the CEO to a member of the finance department requesting a bank transfer to the cybercriminal´s account. All too often the transfer is made without question.
Many email scams attempt to extract log-in credentials by asking the recipient of the email to log into an account to resolve an issue. The email contains a link to a bogus website, where the recipient keys in their username and password. In the case of the Facebook email scam, this gives the cybercriminal access to the recipient´s genuine account and all their social media contacts.
Many individuals use similar username and password combinations for multiple accounts and a cybercriminal could get the individual´s log-in credentials to all their online accounts (personal and work accounts) from just one scam email. Alternatively they could use the log-in credentials to infect the user´s accounts with malware.
To protect against email scams, security experts advise if you are contacted by email and asked to click a link, pay a fine, or open an attachment, assume it is a scam. Try to contact the individual sender or company supposed to have sent the email to confirm its authenticity. Do not use the contact information supplied in the email. Perform an Internet search to independently obtain the sender´s genuine contact details.
Other measures that can be taken to protect yourself from email scams include:
- Carefully check the sender’s email. Does it look like it is genuine?
- Never open email attachments from someone you do not know
- If you receive an email offering you a prize or refund, stay safe and delete the email
- Ensure anti-virus software is installed on your computer and is up to date.
A spate of Gmail phishing attacks has hit the headlines this week. While the phishing scam is not new – it was first identified around a year ago – cybercriminals have adopted the campaign once more. The phishing emails are used to obtain Gmail login credentials are highly convincing,. A number of different tactics are used to evade detection, some of which are likely to fool even the most security aware individuals.
The Gmail phishing attacks start with an email sent to a Gmail account. Security aware individuals would be wary about an email sent from an unknown source. However, these attacks involve emails sent from a contact in the target’s address book. The email addresses are not masked to make them look like they have come from a contact. The email is actually sent from a contact’s account that has already been compromised.
Email recipients are far more likely to open emails sent from their contacts. Many people do not perform any further checks if the sender is known to them. They assume that emails are genuine solely from the source.
However, that is not the only technique used to fool targets. The attackers also use information that has been taken from the contact’s sent and received messages and add this to the email. An screenshot of an attachment or image that has already been included in a previous email between the contact and the target is included in the message. Even if the target is slightly suspicious about receiving an email, these additional touches should allay concern.
The aim of the email is to get the target to click on the image screenshot. Doing so will direct them to a Gmail login page where the target is required to sign in again. While this is perhaps odd, the page that the user is directed to looks exactly as it should. The page exactly mirrors what the user would normally expect.
Checking the website address bar should reveal that the site is not genuine; however, in this case it does not. The address bar shows the site is secure – HTTPS – and the web address includes accounts.google.com. The only sign of the scam is the inclusion of ‘data.text/html’ before accounts.google.com in the address bar.
Entering in account credentials will send that information directly to the attackers. The response is lightning quick. Account credentials are immediately used to log into the victim’s account. Before the victim even suspects they have been scammed, the entire contents of their Gmail account could be stolen, including sent and received emails and the address book. Contacts will be subjected to these Gmail phishing attacks in the same fashion.
Google is aware of the scam and is currently developing mitigations to prevent these types of attacks from occurring. In the meantime, however, users of Gmail should be particularly wary. Many users just glance at the address bar and look for the HTTPS and the web address. Failure to very carefully check the address bar and protocol before entering login credentials can – and certainly will in this case – result in the user’s account being compromised. Gmail accounts contain a huge amount of personal information. Information that could be used in future spear phishing attacks, extortion attempts, and other scams on the target and their contacts.
Research conducted by the anti-phishing training company PhishMe has shown a worrying increase in phishing attacks in 2016 and has highlighted the importance of taking steps to reduce the risk of spear phishing attacks.
Unfortunately, cybercriminals are becoming much more adept at crafting highly convincing spear phishing campaigns. A wide range of social engineering techniques are used to fool employees into responding to the emails and the campaigns are becoming much harder to identify.
Unfortunately responding to these emails can result in email and network credentials being compromised, malware and ransomware being installed on corporate networks, and sensitive data being emailed to the attackers.
The study of phishing attacks in 2016 showed attacks increased by 55% year on year. PhishMe research shows that out of the successful data breaches in 2016, 90% started with a spear phishing email.
In 2016, business email compromise attacks rose by an incredible 1300%, while ransomware attacks increased 400%. Cybercriminals are attacking companies with a vigor never before seen and unfortunately many of those attacks have been successful.
The figures from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office for Civil Rights – which tracks U.S. healthcare data breaches – show that 2016 was the worst ever year on record for healthcare data breaches. At least 323 breaches of more than 500 records occurred in 2016. Undoubtedly many more breaches have yet to be discovered.
Cybercriminals and hackers have employees firmly in their crosshairs. Unfortunately, employees are easy targets. A recent survey conducted by cybersecurity firm Avecto showed that 65% of employees are now wary about clicking on links emailed to them by strangers. Alarmingly, that means 35% are not.
The same survey showed that 68% of respondents have no concerns about clicking on links sent by their friends and colleagues. Given the extent to which email addresses and passwords have been compromised in the last year, this is incredibly worrying. 1 billion Yahoo accounts were breached and 117 million email addresses were compromised as a result of the LinkedIn breach. Gaining access to email accounts is not a problem for cybercriminals. If those accounts are used to send spear-phishing emails, the chance of links being clicked are very high. Unfortunately, all it takes is for one email account to be compromised for access to a network to be gained.
The risk of spear phishing attacks was clearly demonstrated in 2015 when the largest ever healthcare data breach was discovered. 78.8-million health plan members’ records were stolen from Anthem Inc. That breach occurred as a result of an employee of one of the insurer’s subsidiaries responding to a spear phishing email.
Anthem Inc., is the second largest health insurer in the United States and the company spends many tens of millions of highly complex cybersecurity defenses. Those multi-million dollar defenses were undone with a single email.
Organizations must take steps to reduce the risk of speak phishing attacks. Unfortunately, there is no single solution to eradicate risk. A multi-layered defense strategy is required.
An advanced anti-spam solution is essential to prevent the vast majority of spam and phishing emails from being delivered to end users. SpamTitan for example, blocks 99.97% of spam email and 100% of known malware.
Employees must be trained and their training must be tested with phishing exercises. Practice really does make perfect when it comes to identifying email scams. Endpoint defenses should also be employed, along with anti-virus and antimalware software.
The risk of spear phishing attacks will increase again in 2017. Doing nothing to improve cybersecurity defenses and combat the spear phishing risk could prove to be a very costly mistake.
Last month, L.a. County reported one of the largest phishing attacks in the United States. A single phishing campaign directed at Los Angeles County employees saw an incredible 108 individuals fall for the scam. Each employee that responded to the campaign inadvertently divulged their email credentials to the attacker. 108 email accounts were compromised as a result of the one phishing campaign.
While it is not known whether the individual behind the campaign successfully retrieved any data from L.A County email accounts, the compromised email accounts were a treasure trove of sensitive information. The email accounts contained the sensitive information of more than 750,000 individuals.
While the announcement of the phishing attack was only made in December, the actual incident occurred on May 13, 2016. In contrast to the phishing and spam email campaigns of old that contained numerous spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, and bordered on the unbelievable, this campaign was expertly crafted. The attacker used realistic text and images, hence the reason why such a large number of employees fell for the scam.
Fortunately for L.A. County, the phishing attack was identified promptly – within 24 hours – therefore limiting the damage caused. A detailed forensic investigation revealed that 756,000 individuals had their sensitive information – including Social Security numbers and protected health information- exposed as a result of the attack.
There was further good news. The lengthy investigation confirmed the identity of the attacker, a Nigerian national – Austin Kelvin Onaghinor. A warrant has been issued for his arrest. Bringing that individual to justice may be another matter. Extraditing foreign nationals to the United States can be a difficult and long winded process. However, L.A District Attorney Jackie Lacey has vowed to “aggressively to bring this criminal hacker and others to Los Angeles County, where they will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.”
Phishing attacks on this scale are unfortunately not that rare. Cybercriminals are becoming much better at crafting convincing emails and gaining access to corporate email accounts. All too often, the phishing attacks are not identified quickly, giving criminals plenty of time to exfiltrate data from compromised accounts. Many phishing campaigns are conducted to obtain network credentials and other information that can be used to gain a foothold in corporate networks. Once access is gained, all manner of nefarious activities take place.
This L.A. County phishing scam clearly demonstrates that employees are the weakest link in the security chain, which is why cybercriminals are committing more time and effort into phishing attacks. It is far easier to compromise an email account or gain access to a network if an employee provides their login credentials than attempting to find a chink in advanced cybersecurity defenses.
Protecting against phishing attacks requires an advanced spam filtering solution. Without such a solution in place, organizations have to rely on employees identifying emails as malicious. Something which is becoming much harder to do as cybercriminals perfect their social engineering techniques.
Blocking phishing emails and preventing them from being delivered to inboxes is the single-most effective solution to counter the phishing threat. Along with staff anti-phishing training and anti-phishing exercises, organizations can mount a defense against such attacks and avoid the not inconsiderable mitigation costs. Providing credit monitoring and identity theft protection services to 756,000 individuals is a sizeable cost for any organization to absorb.
2016 was a particularly bad year for data breaches. A large number of huge data breaches from years gone by were also discovered in 2016.
The largest breach of 2016 – by some distance – affected Yahoo. The credentials of more than 1 billion users were obtained by the gang behind the attack. A massive cyberattack on MySpace was discovered, with the attackers reportedly obtaining 427 million passwords. 171 million vk.com account details were stolen, including usernames, email addresses, and plaintext passwords. 2016 also saw the discovery of a massive cyberattack on the professional networking platform LinkedIn. The credentials of more than 117 million users were stolen in the attack. Then there was the 51-million iMesh account hack, and 43 million Last.fm accounts were stolen….to name but a few.
The data stolen in these attacks are now being sold on darknet marketplaces to cybercriminals and are being used to commit a multitude of fraud.
One of the biggest threats for businesses comes from business email compromise (BEC) scams. BEC scams involve an attacker impersonating a company executive or vendor and requesting payment of a missed invoice. The attacker sends an email to a member of the accounts team and requests payment of an invoice by wire transfer, usually for several thousand dollars. All too often, even larger transfers are made. Some companies have lost tens of millions of dollars to BEC fraudsters.
Since the email appears to have been sent from a trusted email account, transfer requests are often not questioned. Cybercriminals also spend a considerable amount of time researching their targets. If access to corporate email accounts is gained, the attackers are able to look at previous emails sent by the targets and copy their writing style.
They learn about how transfer requests are usually emailed, the terms used by each company and executive, how emails are addressed, and the amounts of the transfers that have been made. With this information an attacker can craft convincing emails that are unlikely to arouse suspicion.
The scale of the problem was highlighted earlier this year when the FBI released figures as part of a public awareness campaign in June. The FBI reported that $3.1 billion had been lost as a result of BEC scams. Just four months earlier, the losses were $2.3 billion, clearly showing that the threat was becoming more severe.
This year also saw a huge increase in W-2 scams in the United States. W-2 data is requested from HR departments in a similar manner to the BEC scams. Rather than trying to fool email recipients into making fraudulent transfers, the attackers request W-2 data on employees in order to allow them to file fraudulent tax returns in their names. The IRS issued a warning earlier this following a huge increase in W2 attacks on organizations in the United States.
Companies large and small were targeted, with major attacks conducted on Seagate, Snapchat, Central Concrete Supply Co. Inc, and Mainline Health. Between January and March 2016, 55 major – and successful – W-2 scams were reported to the IRS.
Attackers do not even need email account passwords to conduct these attacks. Email addresses of CEOs and executives can easily be spoofed to make them appear that they have been sent internally. The sheer number of stolen email addresses – and in many cases also passwords – makes the threat of BEC and W-2 attacks even greater. Security experts predict next year will be even tougher for businesses with even more cyberattacks than in 2016.
Improve Your Defenses Against Email-Borne Threats in 2017
Reducing the risk of these attacks requires multi-layered defenses. It is essential that all employees authorized to make corporate bank transfers receive training on email security and are alerted to the risk of BEC scams. Policies should be introduced that require bank transfer requests to be authorized by a supervisor and/or authenticated by phone prior to the transfer being made.
All employees should be instructed to use strong passwords and never to share work passwords anywhere else online. Many employees still use the same password for work as for personal accounts. However, if one online platform is breached, it can give the attackers access to all other platforms where the same password has been used – including corporate email accounts.
Organizations should also implement controls to block phishing and spear phishing attacks. Blocking phishing emails reduces reliance on the effectiveness of anti-phishing training for employees.
SpamTitan is a highly effective tool for blocking malicious spam emails, including phishing and spear phishing emails. SpamTitan uses a range of techniques to identify spam and scam emails including Bayesian analyses, greylisting and blacklists. SpamTitan incorporates robust anti-malware and anti-phishing protection, as well as outbound email scanning to block spam and scams from corporate email accounts. SpamTitan is regularly tested by independent experts and is shown to block 99.97% of spam email with a low false positive rate of just 0.03%.
2016 may have been a particularly bad year for data breaches and the outlook doesn’t look good for 2017, but by taking affirmative action and implementing better defenses against email-borne attacks, you could ensure that your company is not added to the 2017 list of data breach and scam statistics.
The email marketing service MailChimp employs security controls to ensure that its customers do not use the service to send spam; yet, this week malicious spam emails were sent from multiple accounts after a MailChimp account hack.
Customer accounts that were breached included Business News Australia, Brisbane’s The Sit Down Comedy Club, and gardening and home services provider Jim’ Group.
MailChimp accounts are valuable to spammers as subscribers to company newsletters are more likely to trust the emails than they would an email from an unknown sender. The hijacked accounts were used to send spam emails demanding an invoice be paid. Spammers often target businesses with malicious emails that spread malware. If malware such as a keylogger can be installed, the attackers can gain access to corporate email accounts or gain network access. Corporate bank account details can be stolen and fraudulent transfers made.
A fake invoice is a common ploy used to fool email recipients into opening an infected email attachment or clicking on a malicious link. A sense of urgency is often included to scare the recipient into opening the attachment. A threat of legal action if the outstanding invoice is not paid promptly is a common tactic.
In this case, a number of different variants were sent. Some emails contained an image with an embedded hyperlink which recipients could click to view the invoice. The spammers also included the logo of accounting software Quickbooks for extra authenticity.
Initially, it appeared that MailChimp had experienced a security breach that resulted in spammers gaining access to accounts; although the company issued a statement saying that an investigation of the incident did not point to an internal breach.
MailChimp told Motherboard “MailChimp’s normal compliance processes identified and disabled a small number of individual accounts sending fake invoices. We have investigated the situation and have found no evidence that MailChimp has been breached. The affected accounts have been disabled, and fraudulent activity has stopped.”
How the MailChimp account hack was pulled off remains a mystery. The spammers may have managed to guess the passwords that were used to secure accounts or they could have obtained those passwords by other means. The practice of reusing passwords on multiple platforms could be to blame. If a breach of one platform occurs, cybercriminals can gain access to all other online services that use the same password.
In a recent post, computer security blogger Graham Cluley suggested some passwords were obtained by the password stealing Trojan Vawtrak. Cluley was contacted by an anonymous source who claimed to be in possession of two thousand MailChimp login credentials which were recorded by Vawtrak.
Details of the MailChimp account hack are unlikely to be released, although the incident shows how important it is for businesses to use two-factor authentication to secure their online accounts. The incident also shows how important it is to exercise caution and to treat any email attachment of hyperlink as potentially malicious, even if the sender of the email is known.
The biggest hacking threat to businesses comes not from unpatched software, but phishing. An incredibly simple, yet highly effective way that cybercriminals gain access to networks. Phishing can be used to bypass even the most sophisticated of cybersecurity defenses. Why go to the trouble of trying to find a weakness in highly sophisticated cybersecurity defenses when a simple email can get an employee to give the attacker their login credentials?
As Jeh Johnson, Secretary for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, recently explained to attendees at the Financial Crimes and Cybersecurity Symposium in New York, phishing is one of the department’s biggest fears.
“The most devastating attacks by the most sophisticated attackers almost always begin with the simple act of spear-phishing,” says Johnson. It is no surprise that phishing is the biggest hacking threat to businesses. Phishing is alarmingly effective.
Even multi-million dollar cybersecurity defenses can be bypassed with a simple phishing email. The social engineering techniques used by cybercriminals often get the desired response.
Most of the largest hacks in the United States were possible not due to a security weakness, but because an employee responded to a phishing email. The cyberattacks on Ebay, Target, the Office of Personnel Management, JP Morgan, Anthem, and Sony Pictures all started with a simple phishing email.
Cybercriminals have also started using phishing emails to distribute ransomware. Malicious links are sent to company employees along with a request to click for free items, to take part in prize draws, or even to secure their computers to prevent cyberattacks.
Phishing has been around for as long as email and cybercriminals will not stop using phishing to gain access to networks, install malware, lock files with ransomware, and steal data. Phishing is likely to remain the biggest hacking threat to businesses. Organizations – and their employees – just need to get better at identifying and blocking phishing attempts.
One of the best defenses against phishing is to ensure that all staff members from the CEO down receive security awareness and anti-phishing training.
Training alone is insufficient. Staff can be told how to identify phishing attempts, but their ability to spot a phishing email must be put to the test. Anti-phishing skills need to be regularly tested. Dummy phishing emails should be sent to check to see who responds. Johnson says his department often sends fake phishing emails – free Redskins tickets for example – to test anti-phishing prowess. Anyone who responds is provided with further training.
Training is important in case a phishing email reaches an employee’s inbox, although it is far better to ensure phishing emails are not delivered. The best technological defense against phishing is the use of a spam filter. If phishing emails are not delivered to inboxes, staff members will not be able to respond and their anti-phishing skills will not be put to the test.
SpamTitan is a highly effective spam filtering solution for businesses that blocks 99.97% of spam email. Each month SpamTitan is independently tested for effectiveness. SpamTitan has now won 36 consecutive VB Bulletin antispam awards.
SpamTitan is a highly scalable anti-spam solution that’s suitable for businesses of all sizes. SpamTitan can be installed as a software solution, as a virtual appliance, or as a 100% cloud-based solution, the latter being ideal for managed service providers (MSPs).
Each solution is quick and easy to install, requires a low management overhead, and incorporates a host of features to block malware and prevent the delivery of phishing emails.
We are so confident that you will be impressed with SpamTitan that we offer the full product on a 100% free, 30-day trial. For further information contact TitanHQ today and take the first step toward banishing spam.
Malicious email spam volume has increased again. According to the latest figures from Kaspersky Lab, malicious email spam volume in Q3, 2016 reached a two-year high.
In Q3 alone, Kaspersky Lab’s antivirus products identified 73,066,751 malicious email attachments which represents a 37% increase from the previous quarter. Malicious spam email volume has not been at the level seen in Q3 since the start of 2014. Kaspersky Lab’s figures show that six out of ten emails (59.19%) are spam; a rise of around 2% from Q2, 2016. September was the worst month of the year to date, with 61.25% of emails classified as unsolicited spam.
Spam includes a wide range of unsolicited emails including advertising and marketing by genuine companies, although cybercriminals extensively use email to distribute malware such as banking Trojans, keyloggers, and ransomware. The use of the latter has increased considerably throughout the year. In Q3, the majority of malicious emails contained either ransomware or downloaders that are used to install ransomware on personal computers and business networks.
Ransomware is a form of malware that locks files on a computer with powerful encryption, preventing the victim from gaining access to their data. Many ransomware variants are capable of spreading laterally and can encrypt files on other networked computers. All it takes is for one individual in a company to open an infected email attachment or click on a malicious link in an email for ransomware to be downloaded.
Spammers often use major news stories to trick people into opening the messages. The release of the iPhone 7 in Q3 saw spammers take advantage. Spam campaigns attempted to convince people that they had won an iPhone 7. Others offered the latest iPhone at rock bottom prices or offered an iPhone 7 for free in exchange for agreeing to test the device. Regardless of the scam, the purpose of the emails is the same. To infect computers with malware.
There was an increase in malicious email spam volume from India in Q3. India is now the largest source of spam, accounting for 14.02% of spam email volume. Vietnam was second with 11.01%, with the United States in third place, accounting for 8.88% of spam emails sent in the quarter.
Phishing emails also increased considerably in Q3, 2016. Kaspersky Lab identified 37,515,531 phishing emails in the quarter; a 15% increase compared to the Q2.
Business email compromise (BEC) attacks and CEO fraud are on the rise. These scams involve impersonating a CEO or executive and convincing workers in the accounts department to make fraudulent bank transfers or email sensitive data such as employee tax information. Some employees have been fooled into revealing login credentials for corporate bank accounts. Cybercriminals use a range of social engineering techniques to fool end users into opening emails and revealing sensitive information to attackers.
Security awareness training is important to ensure all individuals – from the CEO down – are aware of email-borne threats; although all it takes is for one individual to be fooled by a malicious email for a network to be infected or a fraudulent bank transfer to be made.
The rise in malicious email spam volume in Q3, 2016 shows just how important it is to install an effective spam filter such as SpamTitan.
SpamTitan has been independently tested by VB Bulletin and shown to block 99.97% of spam emails. SpamTitan has also been verified as having a low false positive rate of just 0.03%. Dual antivirus engines (Kaspersky Lab and ClamAV) make SpamTitan highly effective at identifying malicious emails and preventing them from being delivered to end users.
If your end users are still receiving spam emails you should consider switching antispam providers. To find out the difference that SpamTitan can make, contact the Sales Team today and register for a free, no obligation 30-day trial.
Thanksgiving weekend sees Americans head on line in the tens of millions to start online Christmas shopping in earnest and this year the holiday season scams have already started.
Black Friday and Cyber Monday are the busiest online shopping days, but some retailers are kickstarting their promotions early this year and have already started offering Black Friday deals. Amazon.com for example launches its first Black Friday offers tomorrow, well ahead of the big day on 25th November.
It is no surprise that retailers are trying to get ahead. 41% of shoppers start their holiday shopping in October according to a recent National Retail Federation survey. 41% of shoppers wait until November. 82% of shoppers like to make an early start, and this year so are the scammers.
A popular tactic used by cybercriminals is typosquatting – the registration of fake domains that closely match the brand names of well-known websites. Phishers use this tactic to obtain login credentials and credit card numbers. In recent weeks, there has been an increase in typosquatting activity targeting banks and retailers.
A fake domain is registered that closely matches that of the targeted website. For instance, the Amaz0n.com domain could be purchased, with the ‘o’ replaced with a zero. Alternatively, two letters could be transposed to catch out careless typists. A website is then created on that domain that closely matches the targeted website. Branding is copied and the layout of the genuine site is replicated.
There is another way that scammers can take advantage of careless typists. Each country has its own unique top level domain. Websites in the United States have .com. Whereas, websites registered in the Middle Eastern country of Oman have the .om domain. Scammers have been buying up the .om domains and using them to catch out careless typists. In the rush to get a holiday season bargain, many users may not notice they have typed zappos.om instead of zappos.com.
Visitors to these scam websites enter their login credentials as normal, yet all they are doing is giving them to the attackers. The scammers don’t even need to spoof an entire website. When the login fails, the site can simply redirect the user to the genuine site. Users then login as normal and complete their purchases. However, the scammers will have their login credentials and will be able to do the same.
However, many websites now have additional security features to prevent the use of stolen login credentials. If a login attempt is made from an unrecognized IP address, this may trigger additional security features. The user may have to answer a security question for example.
Some scammers have got around this problem. When a user attempts to login on a scam site, a login session is automatically opened on the genuine website. The information entered on the scam site is then used by the attackers on the genuine site. When the unusual IP address triggers an additional security element, this is then mirrored on the scam site with the same question forwarded to the user. The question is answered, and an error message is generated saying the login was unsuccessful. The user is then redirected to the genuine site and repeats the process and gains access. Chances are they will be unaware their account details have been compromised. Hours later, the scammers will login to the genuine site using the same credentials.
Businesses must also exercise caution at this time of year and should take steps to reduce the risk of employees falling for holiday season scams. Employees keen to get the latest bargains will undoubtedly complete some of their purchases at work.
Email scams increase at this time of year and business email accounts can be flooded with scam emails. Offers of discounts and special deals are likely to flood inboxes again this year. Email holiday season scams may not be about stealing login credentials. Given the increase in malware and ransomware infections in 2016, this holiday season is likely to see many holiday season scams infect businesses this year. A careless employee looking for an online bargain could all too easily click a link that results in a malware download or ransomware infection.
As holiday season fast approaches, the scammers will be out in force. It is therefore important for both businesses and consumers to take extra care. If you want to find out how you can protect your business from malware and ransomware, contact the TitanHQ team today and find out more about our security solutions.
In July, news started to break about a massive Yahoo Inc data breach. It has taken some time, but the Yahoo Inc data breach has now been confirmed. And it was huge.
The Yahoo Inc data breach beats the massive cyberattack on Heartland Payment Systems in 2009 (130 million records), the LinkedIn cyberattack discovered this summer (117 million records), and the 2011 Sony data breach (100 million records). In fact, the Yahoo Inc data breach is the largest ever reported. More records were stolen in the cyberattack than those three breaches combined. More than 500 million accounts were compromised, according to Yahoo.
Yahoo Inc Data Breach Worse than Initially Thought
The Yahoo Inc data breach came to light when a hacker added a listing to the Darknet marketplace, theRealDeal. The credentials of 280 million account holders were offered for sale by a hacker called ‘Peace’. To anyone who follows Internet security news, the name of the hacker selling the data should be familiar. Peace recently listed the data from the LinkedIn hack for sale.
The 280 million Yahoo records were listed for a paltry $1,800. That payment would buy a cybercriminal names, usernames, easily crackable passwords, backup email addresses, and dates of birth. While the data were listed for sale 2 months ago, Yahoo has only just announced the breach.
After being alerted to the listing, Yahoo initiated an internal investigation. The investigation allegedly did not uncover any evidence to suggest that the claims made by “Peace” were genuine. However, the internal investigation did reveal that someone else had hacked Yahoo’s systems. Yahoo claims the hack was performed by a state-sponsored hacker.
Yahoo issued a statement saying “The investigation has found no evidence that the state-sponsored actor is currently in Yahoo’s network.” While that is undoubtedly good news, the bad news is that access is no longer required because user’s data have already been stolen.
The stolen data include names, email addresses, dates of birth, telephone numbers, security questions and answers, and hashed passwords. According to Yahoo, users’ bank account information and payment card details do not appear to have been stolen. Those credentials were stored in a separate system.
What is most concerning about the Yahoo Inc data breach is not the fact that its systems were compromised, but how it has taken so long for Yahoo to discover the cyberattack. The breach did not occur over the summer. The hack took place in 2014.
The results of the Yahoo Inc data breach investigation will have come as a nasty shock to Verizon. The company agreed to buy Yahoo’s core web business, including Yahoo email, in the summer for $4.8bn. It is possible that Verizon may now be having second thoughts about that deal. Whether the hack will have an impact on the purchase remains to be seen, but for Yahoo the timing could not be much worse.
Yahoo Account Holders Advised to Change Passwords and Security Q&As
Yahoo account holders are unlikely to be concerned about any potential sale of their email accounts to Verizon. They will however be concerned about the sale of their credentials to cybercriminal gangs. Even if the data that were listed for sale by Peace are not genuine, someone somewhere does have their data. Most likely, their data are in the hands of multiple criminals. Those data can – and will – be used in a variety of malicious ways.
Yahoo has now placed a notice on its website alerting users to the breach of their data. Yahoo has also sent out emails to affected users urging them to login to their accounts and change their passwords and security questions. The old security questions and answers have now been invalidated and Yahoo has told users to check their accounts for any suspicious activity, albeit out of “an abundance of caution”.
Fortunately for account holders, the majority of passwords were encrypted with bcrypt – a relatively secure form of encryption. However, that does not mean that the passwords cannot be cracked nor that email account holders are not at risk as a result of the Yahoo Inc data breach.
Yahoo Users at Risk of Phishing Attacks
Cybercriminals may not be able to crack the passwords and gain access to user accounts, but they have all the data they need to conduct phishing campaigns.
Yahoo has already emailed users alerting them to the breach, but the emails contained links that can be used to change passwords and security questions. Any cybercriminal in possession of the stolen data is likely to copy the official emails sent by Yahoo. However, instead of links to Yahoo’s website, the emails will contain links to phishing sites.
Those sites are likely to look exactly the same as the official Yahoo site. However, any user entering a new password or security question, would simply be disclosing that information to the attacker. Emails are also likely to be sent that direct users to websites containing exploit kits. Clicking the links will result in malware and ransomware downloads.
If the criminals behind the attack – or those in possession of the data – do manage to crack the passwords, it is not only Yahoo email accounts that could be compromised. Any individual who has used the same password on other websites faces a high risk of other accounts being compromised. Bank accounts, social media accounts, other email accounts, E-bay and Amazon.com accounts could all be at risk.
The data could also be used for social engineering scams, via email or telephone. Criminals will be looking to obtain the extra data they need to commit identity theft and other types of fraud.
How to Minimize Risk and Protect Yourself
- Never click on any links contained in emails. Even if an email looks official and contains a link to help.yahoo.com or login.yahoo.com, do not click on the links. Instead, login to your account in the usual way by entering the web address directly into your browser and change your password and security questions.
- Use a strong password containing letters (capitals, and lower case), numbers, and special characters.
- If you have used the same password for multiple websites, change those passwords immediately. Each website requires a different password. Use a password manager – either a free or paid service – to remember all your passwords.
- Use Yahoo Account Key, which will eliminate the need for a password altogether
- Never respond to any email request for personal information
- Never open any attachments sent via email unless you are certain of their genuineness
Users of Apple devices have been warned about a new fake invoice email scam that attempts to get them to provide attackers with their bank details.
Another Email Scam Targets Apple Device Users
Criminals are sending spam emails in the millions in the hope that they will be received by owners of Apple devices. The spam emails contain a bogus invoice which indicates the user’s iTunes account has been used to download a number of videos, games, singles, and albums.
The fake invoice includes Apple logos and details of the amounts charged for each purchase. The email is intended to scare iTunes account holders into thinking their account has been compromised and used to make fraudulent purchases.
At the bottom of the invoice is a link for users to click if they did not authorize the purchases. The email recipient is told that they have 14 days to query purchases and receive refunds. However, clicking the “manage my refunds” link will not take the user to the Apple App Store website, but to a spoof site where they are asked to enter in their bank account information. The attackers claim that a refund will be given; however, divulging bank account details will enable the attackers to make fraudulent charges to the users’ accounts.
Both Apple and the FBI are investigating the latest fake invoice email scam. While Apple has not released a statement about this fake invoice email scam, after previous email spam campaigns Apple has told customers that they would not be asked to reveal sensitive information such as bank account details, passwords, and credit card numbers in emails.
When bank account information is required, such as to set up an iTunes account, the web address will be a subdomain of apple.com: store.apple.com for example. Apple advises customer never to reveal their sensitive information on any non-Apple website.
Fake Invoice Email Scam Targets Netflix Users
Criminals often spoof popular websites and attempt to phish for sensitive information such as credit card numbers and bank account details. Netflix it another popular target for scammers due to the number of subscribers to the service. A similar fake invoice email scam is also being used to fool Netflix account holders into disclosing their bank account information.
The spam emails contain an invoice for a subscription to Netflix claiming the user’s account will be charged to renew their subscription. The funds will be automatically taken from users’ accounts unless action is taken to change their auto-renew settings.
As with the Apple scam, a link is provided on the invoice which allows the email recipient to manage their subscription settings. The email appears to have been sent from Netflix, but clicking the link in the email will similarly take the user to a scam site. They are then taken through a series of steps to manage their subscription, which involves confirming their bank account details.
How to Avoid Becoming a Victim of Email Scams
These fake invoice email scam are designed to catch out the unwary and scare people into revealing sensitive information. However, by adopting some email security best practices it is easy to avoid scams such as these.
If you are sent an invoice in an email that claims to be from a web service, never click on the links in the email, no matter how realistic the email appears to be. Instead visit the official website and check account details or account charges directly on that website.
Cybercriminals often include links to spoofed websites in an attempt to obtain sensitive information, although the links can also direct the email recipient to a website hosting an exploit kit. Exploit kits probe for vulnerabilities in browsers and plugins that can be exploited to automatically download malware.
It is safest to assume that all attachments sent via email could be malicious. Never open an email attachment contained in an email unless you are 100% sure that it is genuine. Cybercriminals use email attachments to transmit malware and ransomware. Opening an attachment can potentially result in a malware infection.
Small business owners should use software solutions to prevent the downloading of malware. While anti-virus and anti-malware software can prevent malware from being installed, cybercriminals are developing highly sophisticated malware which is not detected by anti-virus software. By installing a spam filtering solution such as SpamTitan, small businesses can prevent these malicious emails from being delivered to end users’ inboxes. This reduces reliance of employees’ ability to identify phishing and scam emails.
A highly sophisticated PayPal email scam has been uncovered that is being used to deliver banking malware. Rather than promise the email recipient a sum of money or the opportunity to claim an inheritance from a long lost relative, this PayPal email scam claims a payment has been made to the victims account and that the money needs to be refunded.
The scam emails say that $100 has been fraudulently sent to the victims account and a refund is requested. The emails contain PayPal logos and appear to have been sent directly from PayPal. The emails appear to have been sent from the firstname.lastname@example.org email account. The message contains the subject line “You’ve got a money request”.
It is not clear how the attacker has managed to spoof the PayPal email account, or how the email manages to bypass the spam filter of Gmail.
If the victim responds to the email and makes the payment they will have lost $100; however, that is not all. The victim will also have malware loaded onto their computer. The malware will be loaded automatically regardless of whether the payment is made.
A link is contained in the email which the user must click to find out more about the transaction. The link contains a shortened URL and directs to a document detailing the transaction. The document has a goo.gl address and the link appears to be a jpeg image of the transaction details.
Chthonic Banking Malware Delivered via PayPal Email Scam
The malware that is installed is a variant of the infamous Zeus banking malware – Chthonic. This malware has been programmed to inject its own code and images into banking websites. When the victim visits their online banking website the malware captures login names, passwords, PIN numbers, and answers to security questions. Many banking malware variants target a small number of financial institutions; however, Chthonic is capable of recording information entered into more than 150 different banking websites. Victims are primarily in the UK, US, Russia, Japan, and Italy.
Chthonic isn’t the only malware delivered. Researchers at Proofpoint have determined that an additional previously unknown malware variant called AZORult is also installed onto victims’ computers. Little is known about this new malware variant.
As the sports spectacular fast approaches it is time to be on high alert for Rio Olympics email scams. The Olympics have not yet started, but the scammers have certainly been active. Many new Rio Olympics email scams have been spotted in recent weeks and the number will certainly increase as the opening ceremony draws closer.
Any large sporting event that attracts massive global media interest is a good opportunity for scammers. With sports fans hungry for news of the latest events, information about competitors, or the latest betting odds, it is all too easy for the guard to be let down. A scramble for last minute tickets sees scammers rake in hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Many scammers feel that the Olympics is shooting fish in a barrel season. Which sadly it is.
Kaspersky Lab has reported that the first Rio Olympics email scams were uncovered as early as 2015; however, as the opening ceremony draws closer activity has increased by several orders of magnitude. In the UK, Action Fraud – the National fraud reporting body – has already received reports of 47 cases of fraud relating to the Rio Olympics, which has resulted in attackers gaining more than £300,000 ($392,800) in funds.
Watch out for these Rio Olympics Email Scams
The Rio Olympics email scams are as diverse as the events being competed over the 17-day competition. It is therefore a time to be particularly cautious.
Criminals are after bank details for fraudulent transfers, credit card details to make purchases, personal data for identity theft, and login credentials for all manner of nefarious activities. It is a time for everyone to be on their guard. Be prepared for a barrage of Rio Olympics email scams over the next few weeks and keep your wits about you online.
Fake Tickets Scams
The price of a ticket to the opening ceremony will cost anywhere between $60 to $1,400, although touts are offering tickets at vastly inflated prices. Ticket prices to see the most popular events can cost several thousand dollars. If a scammer can get a victim to part with their hard earned cash it could potentially be a big payday. If you are still planning on attending and you haven’t yet purchased a ticket, only buy from official sellers.
Scammers have already registered a host of official-looking domain names to fool the unwary into purchasing tickets and parting with their credit card numbers. The websites use official logos that have been lifted from the Internet and appear genuine. Fake or cheap SSL certificates are also purchased making the connections appear secure, yet checks may not have been performed on the company. A SSL (website starting with https) does not guarantee it is genuine. Before parting with your money, at least perform a WHOIS search on the domain owner. Fake domains have usually been purchased in the past few weeks or months. Also perform some online checks to make sure the website is genuine.
Be aware that just because a website ranks highly in the search engines it doesn’t mean it is legitimate. Many scammers use search engine poisoning to increase the rank and position of their websites. They may even appear above those of official ticket vendors.
Many Rio Olympics email scams direct sports fans to unofficial ticket sellers and scam websites. You will at best pay over the odds for a ticket, but most likely you will just be giving your money to a scammer and no tickets will ever arrive in the post.
Congratulations! You Have Won!
If you receive an email informing you that you have won (insert amazing prize here), chances are it is a scam. If it sounds too good to be true, it most probably is. While many Rio Olympics email scams attempt to get individuals to disclose bank details and credit card information, a great deal attempt to obtain money by other means.
Many Rio Olympics email scams direct users to official looking scam websites. Be very careful about disclosing any information on any website during the Olympics.
Emails are sent with fake attachments which, if opened, will infect the email recipients’ computer with malware or ransomware. Malware can log keystrokes and obtain login credentials. Ransomware will encrypt files and a ransom must be paid in order to obtain decryption keys. Links contained in websites often direct users to malicious websites where drive-by malware downloads take place.
Olympics and Zika News
If you are a sports fan and you want to follow the latest news, search for sports sites online and bookmark the pages. Do not click links contained in emails that are delivered to your inbox or spam folder. Many people click on any links contained in emails that seem interesting. Doing so could prove very costly. Scammers are sending out fake news emails or links to legitimate stories. Those links do not direct the recipient to news websites, but to sites loaded with exploit kits which download malware and ransomware onto users’ computers.
Fake Prize Draws
Social media is awash with offers to enter prize draws to win tickets to the Olympics. Be exceptionally careful about disclosing any personal information on social media sites. Scammers often use fake prize draws to obtain sensitive personal data. Those data can be used for future email scams, or to gain access to online accounts. Phishing campaigns are rife during the Olympics.
Fake lottery scams are also commonplace. Emails are sent out in the millions telling recipients they have won a prize draw or lottery. To claim the winnings, it is necessary to pay an admin fee and disclose credit card details or provide bank details for the transfer along with other sensitive information. The golden rule is: If you have not entered the draw, you cannot have won it. If you are asked to make a payment in order to receive winnings it is likely a scam.
If in any doubt as to the legitimacy of an email, delete it. Chances are you have not won a competition you have not entered and you are not lucky enough to have won an all-expenses paid trip to Rio to see the Olympics. It is likely to be one of the many Rio Olympics email scams currently circulating cyberspace.
Protecting Employees and Networks from Attack
Businesses need to take care to protect their networks and prevent their employees from inadvertently downloading malware or giving attackers a foothold in their network. There are plenty of malicious actors that will be using the frenzy surrounding the Rio Olympics to conduct their nefarious activities.
One of the best defenses against Rio Olympics email scams – and other malicious email spam in general – is to use a robust email spam filter such as SpamTitan. SpamTitan blocks 99.97% of email spam, preventing malicious emails from being delivered to end users.
To find out how SpamTitan can help you improve your security posture and prevent malware, ransomware, and phishing emails from being delivered to your employees, give the TitanHQ sales team a call today.
The Tennessee Board of Professional Responsibility has issued an alert warning of a new phishing scam after a number of attorneys received a fake notification of action phishing email.
The notification of action phishing email appears to have been sent from attorney regulatory agencies and requests the recipient clicks on a link or opens an infected email attachment to view the details of a new legal complaint. If the attachment is opened or the link is clicked, crypto-ransomware will be installed on the email recipient’s device. Files will be locked and a ransom demand will appear demanding payment in exchange for a decryption key.
Alerts Issued After Spate of Phishing Emails Received by U.S Attorneys
The Center for Internet Security also issued a cyber-alert recently after becoming aware of new email scams that were targeting U.S lawyers. Lawyers in Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Nevada, and Tennessee have all been targeted.
Last month, more than 50 lawyers reported receiving fake emails about new discipline investigations. The emails appeared to come from state disciplinary bodies and bar associations. The emails were designed to cause concern and prompt the recipient to click on links to find out more information.
In contrast to many phishing emails, this campaign appears to be targeted. The emails contain personal information about the recipient which may fool some attorneys into thinking the messages are authentic. The emails are particularly well written, which makes it harder to identify them as phishing scams.
While personal information is included, that information is likely to have been taken from attorneys’ websites or social media websites such as LinkedIn.
Some of the emails indicate a complaint has been filed against the recipient, some claim that the individual’s bar membership has lapsed. The links contained in the emails direct users to a spoofed website where a drive-by malware download occurs.
How to Identify a Notification of Action Phishing Email
Since the latest emails have been personalized and are well written, identifying them as fake is a little harder than with standard phishing emails.
To prevent a drive-by download of malware it is important to ensure that browsers and plugins are kept up to date. Email links from unknown recipients should not be clicked, and even if the email appears to be genuine care should be exercised.
If a notification of action phishing email appears to have come from a regulatory body, the recipient should visit the appropriate website by entering in the URL directly into their browser. Hovering the mouse arrow over the link will show the real address that that the recipient will be directed to if the link is clicked. Oftentimes this will display an alternate URL.
Anti-spam email solutions such as SpamTitan offer an additional level of protection. SpamTitan blocks 99.97% of spam emails from being delivered.
A new, sophisticated Game of Thrones phishing scam has been uncovered which is targeting individuals who illegally download pirated copies of the HBO series. Game of Thrones is the most pirated TV show in history, with many individuals choosing to illegally download the latest episodes to get their GOT fix. This has not escaped the attention of scammers.
Game of Thrones Phishing Scam Emails Sent via ISPs
The scammers have used an innovative trick to make their scam more realistic. The emails claim to have been sent by IP-Echelon, the company that is used by HBO and other entertainment companies to enforce copyright claims. IP-Echelon has already sent many copyright infringement emails to illegal downloaders of movies and TV shows on behalf of a number of companies.
The Latest Game of Thrones phishing scam uses emails that appear to have been generated by IP-Echelon. The emails are extremely well written and contain the same language that is used by the organization when sending out legitimate notices to ISPs.
The ISPs, believing the copyright infringement notices to be genuine, then forward the emails to customers. Since the notice is sent by the ISP, the Game of Thrones phishing scam appears to be genuine.
The customer is told that they must settle the case promptly – within 72 hours – in order to avoid legal action. To settle the case, the customer must visit a link to review the settlement offer and make payment. Failure to do so will see that settlement offer withdrawn. The email says that the settlement about will increase as a result.
The scam has been run in the United States, although there have been a number of reports of individuals in Canada, Europe, and Australia also having been targeted with the same email scam.
A Convincing Phishing Scam That Has Fooled Many ISPs
It is unclear at this point whether the scammers are specifically targeting individuals who have accessed torrent sites and have downloaded torrent files, or whether the emails are being sent out randomly. Some individuals have taken to Internet forums to claim that they have not performed any illegal downloads, while others have been using torrent sites to illegally download TV shows and movies.
HBO has previously taken action over illegal downloaders and has used IP-Echelon to send out notices very similar to those being used by the scammers. Since the Game of Thrones phishing scam appears to be so realistic, many illegal downloaders may be fooled into making the payment. However, that payment will go directly to the scammers.
As is the case with all email requests such as this, the recipient should take steps to verify the authenticity of the email prior to taking any action. Contacting the company that sent the message – using the contact telephone number on the company’s official website – is the best way to confirm authenticity. Email recipients should never use any contact information that is sent in the email body.
Some ISPs have taken steps to confirm the authenticity of the emails and have discovered they are a scam, but not all. Many have been forwarded on by ISPs who believed the scam emails to be legitimate.
A new phishing scam has been discovered that is being used to steal the login credentials and phone numbers of employees. The new scam uses blurred images of invoices to lure victims into revealing sensitive information. In order to view the document or spreadsheet in higher resolution, the victim must supply their email address and password. It is not clear whether this blurred image phishing scam is being used for targeted attacks on businesses or whether the emails are being sent out randomly.
The Blurred Image Phishing Scam
A number of different versions of the same scam have been discovered by the Internet Storm Center, each of which uses a different document.
The initial email appears to have been sent from a legitimate company – a well-known company likely to be very familiar to most business users. HSBC for example. The emails contain corporate logos and are well written. They contain a link that must be clicked to view a purchase order or invoice.
Clicking the link will take the email recipient to a webpage where they are presented with what appears to be a legitimate document. The attackers use a screenshot of an excel spreadsheet (or word document) which appears blurred. The screenshot was taken on a low resolution yet is displayed in high resolution to ensure it cannot be read, although it is clear what the document is.
The login credentials are harvested and sent to the attacker along with the victim’s location and IP address. Users are subsequently directed to a fake Google authentication portal where they are asked to supply their phone number. If the victim enters their details and clicks to view the document, a PDF file will open.
The EU referendum that recently took place in the United Kingdom has sparked a spate of Brexit phishing attacks. Brexit – a contraction of British exit from the European Union – has caused considerable economic turmoil in the UK and a great deal of uncertainty about the future. It is not only the UK that has been affected. The decision of 52% of British voters to opt to leave the EU has had an impact on markets around the world.
Whenever a big news story breaks, criminals seek to take advantage. Cybercriminals have been quick to take advantage of the UK EU referendum result and have launched a wave of Brexit phishing attacks which trick people into downloading malware onto their computers.
The Brexit phishing attacks are being conducted using spam email messages. Attackers are sending out emails in the millions with subject lines relating to the Brexit result. The emails play on fears about the uncertainty of the financial markets, the economic turmoil that has been caused, and the political upheaval that has followed.
The emails contain malicious attachments which, if opened, install malware onto the victims’ computers. Many email messages contain links to malicious websites where drive-by malware downloads take place. Some of the emails offer victims help to keep their bank accounts and savings protected from currency fluctuations. In order to protect accounts, the victims are required to divulge highly sensitive information such as bank account details via scam websites.
The malware being sent is capable of logging keystrokes made on computers. These malicious software programs then relay sensitive information such as online banking login information to the attackers, allowing them to make fraudulent transfers.
All computer users should be extremely wary about unexpected email messages. Opening file attachments sent from unknown senders is risky and may result in malware being loaded onto computers. Ransomware can also be installed. The malicious software locks files until a ransom payment is made to the attackers.
Any email that contains a link to a news story should be deleted. The story will be covered by the usual news websites if it is genuine. Those sites should be accessed directly through the browser or via the search engines.
Organizations can protect their networks and users from Brexit phishing attacks and other malicious spam email campaigns by installing a spam filtering solution such as SpamTitan. SpamTitan captures more than 99% of spam email, preventing phishing emails from being delivered. This reduces reliance on employees being able to identify a phishing scam or malicious email.
Facebook phishing attacks are fairly common. The website has 1.65 billion active monthly users, a considerable number of which access the social media platform on a daily basis. With such a huge number of users, it is understandable that criminals often target users of the platform.
However, the latest phishing scam to target Facebook users is notable for the speed and scale of the attacks. Kaspersky Lab reports that the latest Facebook phishing attacks have been claiming a new victim every 20 seconds.
The Facebook phishing attacks took place over a period of two days, during which time more than 10,000 Facebook users had their computers infected with malware.
The phishing scam involves site users being sent a message from their ‘friends’. The messages say the user has been mentioned in a comment on a Facebook post. However, when they respond to the message they download a Trojan onto their computers and inadvertently install a malicious Chrome browser extension. In the second phase of the attack, the Trojan and the browser extension are enabled.
When the victim next logs into Facebook the login details are captured and sent to the attacker. This gave the attackers full control of the victims’ Facebook accounts. This allows them to make changes to the privacy settings, steal data, and send their own messages to all of the victims’ contacts on Facebook. The attacks were also used to register fraudulent likes and shares.
The attackers took steps to prevent the infections from being detected. The malware was capable of blocking access to certain websites which could potentially result in the victims discovering the malware infection. The websites of a number of cybersecurity sites were blocked, for instance.
The phishing attack mostly affected Facebook users on Windows computers, although Kaspersky Lab noted that Windows mobile phones were also compromised in the attacks. Individuals who accessed Facebook via Android and Apple phones were immune.
The attacks concentrated on users in South America, with Brazil the worst hit, registering 37% of the Facebook phishing attacks. Columbia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela were also heavily targeted. Attacks in Europe were mostly conducted on users in Poland, Greece, and Portugal, with Germany and Israel also hit hard.
The malware used in the latest Facebook phishing attacks is not new. It was first identified about a year ago. Kaspersky Lab reports that the attackers are most likely of Turkish origin, or at least Turkish-speaking.
What sets this phishing scam apart from the many others is the speed at which users were infected. However, the response to the attacks was also rapid. Users who discovered infections spread the news on Facebook, while the media response helped to raise awareness of the scam. Google has also taken action and has now blocked the malicious Chrome extension.
Cybercriminals are conducting CEO fraud scams with increasing frequency and many organizations have already fallen victim to these attacks. Many companies have lost tens of thousands of dollars as a result of these criminal attacks. In some cases, companies have lost hundreds of thousands or millions of dollars.
What are CEO Fraud Scams?
CEO fraud scams involve an attacker impersonating the CEO of an organization and sending an email to the CFO requesting a bank transfer to be made. The account details of the attacker are supplied, together with a legitimate reason for making the transfer. Oftentimes, these scams involve more than one email. The first requests the transfer, followed by a second email with details of the amount and the bank details for the transaction. By the time the fraudulent transfer is discovered, the funds have been withdrawn from the account and cannot be recovered.
The FBI has issued warnings in the past about these CEO fraud scams. A spate of attacks occurred in Arizona recently. The average transfer request was between $19,000 and $75,000. An April 2016 FBI warning indicated $2.3 billion in losses had been reported between October 2013 and February 2016, with CEO fraud scams increasing by 270% since January 2015.
By training all employees on the common identifiers of phishing emails and also to be more security aware, organizations can reduce the risk of attacks being successful. However, while training is often provided to employees, it is not always given to executives and the CEO. According to a recent survey conducted by Alien Vault, only 44% of IT security professionals said every person – including the CEO – received training on how to identify a phishing email.
Protecting Against CEO Fraud Scams
It is possible to take steps to prevent CEO fraud scams. Email security solutions – SpamTitan for example – can be configured to prevent emails from spoofed domains from being delivered; however, if the email comes from the account of a CEO, there is little that can be done to prevent that email from being delivered. It is therefore essential that training is provided to all members of staff – including executives – on phishing email identification techniques.
Alien Vault polled 300 IT security professionals at Info Security Europe 2016 to determine how prepared organisations were for phishing attacks and what steps had been taken to reduce risk. The results of the survey show that the majority of organisations now provide training to reduce risk, although almost one in five are not taking proactive steps to reduce the risk of phishing and CEO fraud scams.
Almost 45% of companies said they train every single person in the organization on phishing email identification techniques, while 35.4% said that most employees are trained how to identify malicious emails. 19.7% said they do not take proactive steps and deal with phishing problems as and when they occur.
37% of Executives Have Fallen for a Phishing Scam
Out of the 300 respondents, 37% reported that at least one executive had fallen for a phishing scam in the past, while 23.9% of respondents were unaware if they had. However, even though many had experienced phishing attacks, IT security professionals were not confident that such attacks would not happen again in the future.
More than half of respondents believed that company executives could fall for a scam, while nearly 30% said that if the scam was convincing, their executives may be fooled. Only 18.5% said that their executives had been thoroughly briefed and were well aware of the dangers and would not fall for such a scam.
CEO fraud scams can be extremely lucrative for attackers, and oftentimes a considerable amount of time is spent researching companies and crafting clever emails. A variety of social engineering techniques are used and the emails can be very convincing.
Training is important, but it is also vital that efforts are made to ensure the training has been effective. The best way to ensure that all individuals have understood the training is to conduct phishing exercises – Sending dummy phishing emails in an attempt to get a response. This allows IT departments to direct further training programs and ensure that weak links are addressed.
A new Eir phishing scam has been uncovered which has prompted the Irish communications company to issue a warning to customers. Hundreds of customers received emails offering them a refund yesterday. To claim the refund, the email recipients have been instructed to login to their My Eir account. A fake link is supplied in the email which must be clicked to claim the refund.
Eir Phishing Scam Captures Credit Card Details of Customers
That link directs the email recipient to a fake webpage. The malicious website has been designed to look identical to the Eir website. Users are required to confirm their credit card details in order to obtain the refund. Those credentials are logged by the website and are sent to the criminals running the Eir phishing scam.
Eir has warned customers to be on the lookout for the fraudulent email messages and to delete them if they are received. Any individual who has fallen for the Eir phishing scam and has provided credit card details via the malicious website faces a high risk of credit/debit card fraud.
Phishing email campaigns such as this are commonplace. Attackers use a variety of social engineering techniques to get users to reveal sensitive information such as credit and debit card numbers, which are used by the attackers to make online purchases and rack up huge debts in the victims’ names.
The malicious emails can be extremely convincing. Criminals use legitimate imagery in the phishing emails to fool email recipients into believing the emails are genuine. The malicious spam messages usually contain a link that directs to victims to malicious websites where personal information must be disclosed in order to receive a refund, free gift, or to view important documents. The websites can look identical to the legitimate sites.
Spam Email Poses a Considerable Risk to Businesses
Email scams often direct victims to malicious websites containing exploit kits which probe for weaknesses in browsers and plugins and leverage those vulnerabilities to download malware.
The malware poses a considerable risk for businesses. Malware is used to gain a foothold in a computer network, which can be used to launch cyberattacks to steal valuable data or to gain access to corporate email and bank accounts.
To protect against such attacks, employees should be instructed never to use links sent in emails and to login to websites directly via their browsers. Employees should be provided with training to help them identify phishing emails and email and web spam.
Businesses should also use an anti-spam solution such as SpamTitan to capture spam and phishing emails. Preventing the messages from being delivered to end users is the best form of defense against such attacks, and reduces reliance of employees to identify phishing scams.
The FBI issued a new public service announcement which includes new business email compromise scam data. The new data indicates U.S. businesses have lost almost $960 million to business email compromise scams in the past three years, and the total losses from these scams is now almost $3.1 billion.
What is a Business Email Compromise Scam?
A business email compromise scam is a sophisticated attack on a company by scammers that attempt to trick individuals into wiring funds from corporate accounts to the bank accounts of the attackers. Businesses most commonly targeted are those that frequently make foreign transfers to international companies. The attackers must first gain access the email account of the CEO or another high level executive. Then an email is sent from that account to an individual in the accounts department requesting a bank transfer be made. Occasionally the scammer asks for checks to be sent, depending on which method the targeted organization most commonly uses to make payments.
A business email compromise scam does not necessarily require access to a corporate email account to be gained. Attackers can purchase an almost identical domain to that used by the targeted company. They then set up an email account in the name of the CEO using the same format as that used by the company. This can be enough to fool accounts department workers into making the transfer. Business email compromise scams use a variety of social engineering techniques to convince the targeted accounts department employee to make the transfer.
Business Email Compromise Scams are a Growing Problem
The FBI has previously warned businesses of the growing risk of business email compromise scams. In April this year, the FBI Phoenix Office issued a warning about a dramatic rise in BEC attacks. The data showed that between October 2013 and February 2016 there had been at least 17,642 victims of BEC attacks in the United States, and the losses had reached $2.3 billion.
New data from the FBI suggest that the problem is far worse. The FBI has now incorporated business email compromise scam data from the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3). 22,143 reports have now been received from business email compromise scam victims, which correspond to losses of $3,086,250,090.
Between October 2013 and May 2016, there have been 15,668 domestic and international victims, and losses of $1,053,849,635 have been reported. In the U.S. alone, there have been 14,032 victims. Since January 2015, there has been a 1,300% increase in losses as a result of BEC attacks. The majority of the funds have been wired to Asian bank accounts in China and Hong Kong.
The FBI warns of five scenarios that are used by criminals to commit fraud using BEC scams:
- Requests for W-2s or PII from the HR department – The data are used to file fraudulent tax returns in the names of employees
- Requests from foreign suppliers to wire money to new accounts – Attackers discover the name of a regular foreign supplier and send an email request for payment, including new bank details (their own).
- Request from the CEO for a new transfer – The CEO’s (or other executive) email account is compromised and a request for a new bank transfer is sent to an individual in the accounts department who is responsible for making bank transfers
- A personal email account of an employee of a business is compromised – That account is used to send payment requests to multiple vendors who have been identified from the employee’s contact list
- Impersonation of an attorney – Emails are sent from attackers claiming to be attorneys, or representatives of law firms, requesting urgent transfers of funds to pay for time-sensitive matters
To protect against BEC attacks, businesses are advised to use 2-factor authentication on all business bank transfers, in particular those that require payments to be sent overseas. Organizations should treat all bank transfer requests with suspicion if a request is sent via email and pressure is placed on an individual to act quickly and make the transfer.
The FBI recommends that businesses never use free web-based email accounts for business purposes. Organizations should also be careful about the information posted to social media accounts, in particular company information, job descriptions and duties, out of office details, and hierarchical information about the company.